The paper summarises information on 11 species of trematodes parasitic in 9 species of wild carnivorans of Ukraine. The largest number of trematode species (9) was found in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Alaria alata (Diplostomidae) appeared to be the most common trematode parasite in the studied group; it was found in 4 host species from 9 administrative regions and Crimea.
Between 2010 and 2017, records of carnivores in the Tabuk Province were gathered using camera traps, live traps and direct observations. Altogether seven species of carnivores representing four families were recorded: two felines, Felis margarita and Panthera pardus nimr, a hyaenid, Hyaena hyaena, a mustelid, Mellivora capensis and three canids, Canis lupus, Vulpes cana and Vulpes vulpes. For each species, a list of localities is given and its current distribution is described. Unfortunately, many of the reported specimens were killed by hunters or local people. Major threats to carnivores in the Tabuk Province, such as killing and hanging, are discussed and potential solutions are suggested.
Introduction With the exception of the domestic cat, all felid species ( Felidae ) are currently threatened with extinction in their natural habitat. It is mainly caused by the progress of civilisation leading to increased exploitation of natural resources, decreasing food sources for carnivores, poaching, and road accidents. The decline of populations and their fragmentation into small, isolated groups significantly hinder gene flow and thus pose a serious threat to the biodiversity of all cat species. Lynx and European wildcat populations in Poland are faced
Taenia taeniaeformis and Taenia crassiceps are cestodes with voles as intermediate hosts and Felidae, Canidae and Mustelidae as definitive hosts. To evaluate the influence of T. taeniaeformis metacestodes on voles in Vorarlberg (Western Austria), a helminthological survey was performed on 318 common voles (Microtus arvalis) and 93 water voles (Arvicola terrestris). Furthermore the metacestodes themselves were analysed by morphometric methods. Our results demonstrate that both T. taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps are endemic in Vorarlberg, and that there is a significant difference between those infected with larvae of T. taeniaeformis and uninfected voles regarding body weight, but not sex or body length.
Ascarididae nematodes of genera Toxocara and Toxascaris are of significant epizootic relevance among predatory mammals from families Canidae and Felidae. Localization of these nematodes in the definitive hosts, their morphology, as well as the measurements of eggs and adult worms are similar. Recently, molecular techniques have provided alternative approaches for the identification of ascarid species. A common feature of the life cycles of these generally monoxenous nematodes is the significant participation of small rodents. In case of Toxocara spp., the rodent plays the role of paratenic host but optional intermediate host for T. leonina. Several studies indicate co-occurence of both T. canis and T. leonina in domestic and wild canids as well as T. cati and T. leonina in felids. Although the infections of humans with T. canis and T. cati are common worldwide, larvae of T. leonina has the potential to cause human disease as emerging zoonosis.
The article summarizes information on the nematodes parasitic in wild Carnivora of Ukraine. Totally, 50 species of nematodes are known to parasitise carnivorans in the country, 30 species were registered in the present study. Nematodes were found in 14 species of examined hosts from the families Canidae, Mustelidae and Felidae. Maximum diversity of nematodes of carnivorans was observed in Polissia (forest zone in the north of the country) and in Kherson Region in the south. Hosts from the family Canidae harboured 19 nematode species; studied species of the Mustelidae were infected with 15 nematode species, 6 of them were also found in Canidae. The wildcat (Felis silvestris Schreber) and the lynx (Lynx lynx Linnaeus) harboured only two species of nematodes, both are specific parasites of these hosts. The most comprehensive information concerns the nematode communities of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus) and the wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus), with 19 and 9 nematode species found, correspondingly. From 1 to 6 nematode species were found in other species of carnivorans.
The Helminths of Wild Predatory Mammals of Ukraine. Cestodes
Data related to cestodes (totally 17 species), registered in predatory mammals in Ukraine are given and summarized. The richest cestode fauna was found in the Polissya region (Zhitomir, Kiev, Chernigov, Sumy Oblasts), Carpathian region and Transcarpathia. A wide host range characterizes the majority of cestodes occurring in predatory mammals of Ukraine. They are registered in both canines (Canidae) and felines (Felidae). Cestodes of the fox (9 species) and wolf (11 species) were studied more comprehensively. Other species of predatory mammals were infected with 1 to 3 species of cestodes.
Species of the genus Echinococcus (Cestoda; Taeniidae) are minute tapeworms of carnivores. Their larvae are known as hydatids (metacestode), which proliferate asexually in various mammals. Like the majority of cestodes, Echinococcus spp. require two different host species to complete their life cycle. Definitive hosts harbouring the adult cestodes in the small intestine are exclusively carnivores of the Canidae and Felidae families. A wide range of mammal species including humans is susceptible to infection by the metacestode of Echinococcus spp., which develops in their viscera. The disease, caused by species of the genus Echinococcus, is called echinococcosis, and it is one of the most dangerous zoonoses in the world. The traditional species Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis are agents of significant diseases due to the high number of cases and the wide geographical species range. The taxonomy of the genus is controversial; in the current state of ongoing complex revisions, the agent of cystic echinococcosis E. granulosus sensu lato is divided into five species (E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. felidis, E. equinus, E. ortleppi, E. canadensis), in addition to the agents of alveolar echinococcosis (E. multilocularis, E. shiquicus) and polycystic/unicystic echinococcosis (E. vogeli, E. oligarthrus). Here we provide an overview of the current situation, which continues to develop.
., MORENO, L., ARDILES, K., FLORES, M., DUCLOS, M., KINSELLA, M. (2010): Endoparasites of the kodkod, Oncifelis guigna (Carnivora, Felidae) in Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 83(4): 619 - 622. DOI: 10.4067/S0716-078X2010000400015 HIDALGO, A., OBERG, C.A., FONSECA-SALAMANCA, F., VIDAL, M.F. (2013): Report of the fi rst fi nding of puma (Puma concolor puma) infected with Trichinella sp. in Chile. Arch. Med. Vet., 45(203 - 206. DOI: 10.4067/S0301-732X2013000200013 IRIARTE, J.A., JOHNSON, W.E., FRANKLIN, W.L. (1991): Feeding ecology of the Patagonia puma in southernmost Chile
. Abrazhevich (Th e Society of Young Naturalist, Kyiv).
Record of the Wild European Cat, Felis silvestris (Carnivora, Felidae), in Mykolaiv Region of Ukraine [Наход-
ка лесного кота, Felis silvestris (Carnivora, Felidae), в Николаевской области Украины]. — Th e female of
wild cat was killed by a hunting dog in Domanivka District of Mykolaiv Region in November 2014. Th e biotope
was spinney along the small river. Th e coloration of skins complies with coloration of wild cat. Th e pictures and
measures were made: 1) length of the body = 82.0 cm; 2) length of the head = 10