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Operations on Risk Variables

Abstract

In the article the author considers and analyzes operations and functions on risk variables. She takes into account the following variables: the sum of risk variables, its product, multiplication by a constant, division, maximum, minimum and median of a sum of random variables. She receives the formulas for probability distribution and basic distribution parameters. She conducts the analysis for dependent and independent random variables. She proposes the examples of the situations in the economy and production management of risk modelled by these operations. The analysis is conducted with the way of mathematical proving. Some of the formulas presented are taken from the literature but others are the permanent results of the author.

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Trade Credit Insurance and Asymmetric Information Problem

Abstract

The presence of different risk factors in international trade gives evidence of the necessity of support in gaps that may affect exporters’ activity. To maximize the trade volumes and in the same time to minimize the exporters’ risks the stakeholders use trade credit insurance. The paper provides analysis of conceptual background of the trade credit insurance in the world. We analyzed briefly the problems, arising in insurance markets due to asymmetric information, such as adverse selection and moral hazard. Also we discuss the main stages of development of trade credit insurance in countries worldwide. Using comparative and graphical analysis we provide a brief evaluation of the dynamics of claims and recoveries for different forms of trade credit insurance. We found that the claims related to the commercial risk for medium and long trade credits in recent years exceed the recoveries, while with the political risk the reverse trend holds. And we originally consider these findings in terms of information asymmetry in the trade credit insurance differentiated by type of risk.

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“Autogangs”. Car Smuggle to Communist Poland in the 1980s

. AIPN Gdańsk – WUSW Gdańsk, sign. 0046/689, vol. 2, Findings of the investigation on a criminal group operating in Gdańsk and Warsaw, September 29, 1984, f. 112. AIPN Gdańsk – WUSW Gdańsk, sign. 0046/689, Information from the Head of WUSW Department III in Gdańsk, February 21, 1985, f. 201. AIPN Gdańsk – EAGD, sign. 114475, Prohibition to leave the country, April 1985, f. 133. AIPN Gdańsk – WUSW Gdańsk, sign. 0046/689, vol. 1, Request of IOF to terminate the “Gruda” operation – January 31, 1990, f. 39. AIPN Gdańsk – SW Gdańsk, sign. 98/1, vol

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Theatre Reviews

according to Katarzyna Deszcz]. 20 November 2014. < http://www.e-teatr.pl/pl/artykuly/181032.html?josso_assertion_id=5AB918F39CB4CD0F >. Gołębiowska, Agnieszka b. 2014. “Sex and violence, czyli sklep mięsny z kobietami” [Sex and violence, or a butcher’s shop with women]. 20 November 2014. < http://www.e-teatr.pl/pl/artykuly/181226.html >. Sowiński, Krzysztof. 2014. “Odwieczna gra w krzesła” [Eternal game of who will supplant whom]. 20 November 2014. < http://www.e-teatr.pl/pl/artykuly/181317.html >.

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Identifying the determinants that cause the value movements of currencies Denar, Kuna and Dinar

). Structure of capital flows and exchange rate: The case of Croatia. Available at https://www.hnb.hr/documents/20182/2030174/w-052.pdf/23163f57-2b6f-4f39-81b9-014c4304892b [08 September 2018]. 5. Chinn, M. D. (2006). Real Exchange Rate s. University of Wisconsin, Madison and National Bureau of Economic Research. 6. Faruqee. H. (1995). Long-run determinants of the real exchange rate: A stock flow perspective. International Monetary Fund, Staff papers, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 80-107. 7. Ghura, D., Grennes, T. J. (1993). The real exchange rate and

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Biosorption lead(II) and nikel(II) from an aqueous solution by bacterial biomass

heavy metal resistant fungal and bacterial isolates. J. Hazard. Mater. 146, 270-277. DOI: 10.1016/j.hazmat.2006.12.017. Lopez, A., Lazaro, N., Priego, J. M. & Marques, A. M. (2000). Effect of pH on the biosorp-tion of nickel and other heavy metals by Pseudomonas fluorescens 4F39. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biot. 24, 146-151. DOI: 10.1038/sj.jim.2900793. Puranik, P. R. & Paknikar, K. M. (1999). Influence of co-cations on biosorption of lead and zinc-a comparative evaluation in binary and multimetal systems. Bioresource

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Biosorption of lead(II), zinc(II) and nickel(II) from industrial wastewater by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Bacillus subtilis

, C. (2009). Biosorbents for heavy metals removal and their future. Biotech. Adv. 27, 195-226. DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2008.11.002. 24. Lopez, A., Lazaro, N., Priego, J.M. & Marques, A.M. (2000). Effect of pH on the biosorption of nickel and other heavy metals by Pseudomonas fluorescens 4F39. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biot. 24, 146-151. DOI: 10.1038/sj.jim.2900793. 25. Fosso-Kankeu, E., Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A.F., Mamba, B.B., Marjanovic, L. & Barnard, T.G. (2010). A comprehensive study of physical and physiological parameters that affect

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Role of angiotensin II on protein expression of renal nitric oxide synthase in unilateral ureteral obstructive rat

S. New insights into actions of the reninangiotensin system in the kidney: concentrating on the Ang II receptors and the newly described Ang-(1-7) and its receptor. Semin Nephrol. 2001; 21:535-43. 20. Siragy MH, Carey MR. The subtype 2 (AT2) angiotensin receptor mediates renal production of nitric oxide in conscious rats. J Clin Invest. 1997; 100:264-9. 21. Morrissey J, Klahr S. Effect of AT2 receptor blocker on the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. Am J Physiol. 1999; 276:F39-45. 22. Ignjatovic T, Tan F, Brovkovych V

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Association between serum interleukin-6 levels and severity of perinatal asphyxia

-term asphyxiated newborn infants? Pediatr Res. 1995; 37:260-4. 8. Thornberg E, Thiringer K, Hagberg H, Kjellmer I. Neuron specific enolase in asphyxiated newborns: association with encephalopathy and cerebral function monitor trace. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1995; 72:F39-42. 9. Huang CC, Wang ST, Chang YC, Lin KP, Wu PL. Measurement of the urinary lactate:creatinine ratio for the early identification of newborn infants at risk for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341:328-35. 10. Nagdyman N, Grimmer I

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Education for Sustainability: Developing Ecocritical Literature Circles in the Student Teacher Classroom

: Creating an environment for choice. Primary Voices, K-6 8.4, 29–37. Straits, W., & Nicolls, S. (2006). Literature circles for science. National Science Teacher Association Web News, October 30 th . Retrieved from http://www.nsta.org/publications/news/story.aspx?id=52824 Rizzo, S. (2011). Developing dynamic classroom interaction through reading circles. AUC TESOL Journal . Retrieved from https://www3.aucegypt.edu/auctesol/Default.aspx?issueid=dc82a931-ec50-4ac8-98a3-4878b73f0399&aid=d03ca6d6-4242-4325-a79f-f39ceff31918 Rousseau, J. J. (2010 [1762

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