There is a well-established literature that finds a strong causal association between remittance flows and economic growth and poverty. Owing to the poverty-alleviating and income-generating effects of remittances, it may theoretically reduce crime by increasing the opportunity cost of committing crime. This paper studies the effects of remittance receipts on crime outcomes in India. The identification strategy, exploits the variation in rainfall as an instrument for remittance receipts. The results suggest that remittance receipts have a negative effect on violent crimes and a positive effect on nonviolent crimes. Since remittance flows mean that more economic resources are available, remittances provide an incentive for certain crimes that thrive in the presence of economic resources. Therefore, an important implication of this result is that as remittance receipts increase income and welfare, there is a diverse effect on the costs and benefits of different types of crimes. It may result in unfavorable outcomes in the form of increases in certain nonviolent crimes.
Migration and remittances are argued to be an effective mechanism for mitigating poverty, as well as a coping mechanism for disadvantaged households with no or little employment and earning opportunities in Kosovo. A considerable part is reported to be directed towards consumption and very little for investment or enterpreneurship purposes. The high dependence of households on remittances suggests that poverty rates would be much higher without the safety net provided through migration and remittances. The conventional approach of empirically estimating determinants of remittances, including those focusing on Kosovo, treats both remittance and migration behaviour as independent decisions. Empirically estimating determinants of remittances while overlooking the importance of variables that influenced the decision to migrate will leave out these determinants and also bias the results. Hence, this study treats migration and remittance decision as a joint process and focuses on the household. More precisely, it analyses the impact that remittances and migration have on the poverty in Kosovo, in a hypothetical case, without remittances and migration using data from the Household Budget Survey 2011.
Due to the potential presence of selection bias, this study uses a two-stage Heckman-type selection procedure which suggests that there is no selection bias. The study develops counterfactual consumption estimates for remittance recipient households through the use of survey bootstrap procedure to predict the consumption of households in the case of no remittances. The results support the hypothesis that remittances increase the consumption of recipient households. The poverty rate would be higher for a considerable proportion of households in the case of no remittances. The poverty rates would increase particularly in rural areas. The novelty of this study lies on the methodological approach chosen to investigate the impact of remittances on poverty in Kosovo. In contrast to previous analysis, this study controls for potential selection bias and empirically assesses whether the expectations on the poverty reducing effect of remittances in Kosovo hold.
The aim of the paper is to analyse the effects of economic immigration on subnational government finance (SNG) in Poland. The goal to achieve is to answer the following research question: what are the fiscal effects of immigration on SNG budget revenues and expenditures. To answer this question, logarithmic models were developed. The analysis refers to the years 2007-2016. In this respect, data from Statistics Poland - referring to budget revenues and expenditures of communes, cities of district status, districts and voivodeships - were used. As far as immigration statistics are concerned, data from the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Policy were used. The results indicate an increase in both revenues and expenditures of SNG as a result of immigration. Such results can be explained inter alia by the nature of migration - research were focused on economic immigration. Results confirm that the level of employment of foreigners is one of the determinants shaping the fiscal effect of immigration. Moreover, the impact of economic immigration on SNG budget revenues and expenditures depends on the structure of this budget. This explains the differentiated results of the analysis of the impact of immigration on SNG in different countries. The positive correlation between immigration and SNG revenues in Poland can be associated with a high share of subnational governments in personal income tax revenues as this tax is one of the main categories of SNG revenues. Furthermore, results show that the impact of immigration on local government budgets in Poland is modest. This confirms the conclusions drawn by other authors (e.g. Auerbach and Oreopoulos), that in the long term, immigration cannot be considered as a potential instrument for resolving fiscal imbalances.
Whether an individual can or cannot participate in the Czech public health insurance system depends on several characteristics, one of which is whether he/she has permanent residence status in the Czech Republic, and a second whether he/she is employed. This means that those without permanent residence status, including self-employed migrants from third countries, their dependent relatives, and the dependent relatives of third country employees in the Czech Republic, cannot participate in the public health insurance system. Some argue that such migrants should be included in the system, since commercial health insurance is disadvantageous and the contributions they would pay into the public health insurance system would increase the public health insurance agencies’ income. We estimate the value of the contributions to public health insurance that would be paid by third country self-employed and non-working immigrants, if they were insured based on data from 2011 to 2013, and compare this to the assumed costs of their medical care. To calculate the contributions for self-employed migrants we use data on the distribution of the tax base for self-employed persons from personal income tax returns. Our estimation results in an overall negative balance of 22 million CZK on the data for 2012 and 2013. In the current system this deficit would be covered by the state, which would pay contributions to the system for certain (state insured) persons amounting to 97 million CZK; overall therefore the inclusion of these immigrants would result in a positive balance of 75 million CZK.
This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between refugees and development in host economies from a macroeconomic point of view. The results obtained show that this relationship is non-linear. The empirical results demonstrate that refugees have a positive and significant direct effect in high and lower-middle-income countries. A positive and significant indirect effect of refugees through labor force and RD channels is also present in the same groups. In upper-middle-income and low-income countries, the direct effect of refugees is negative and significant. Similarly, the indirect effect of the refugee population on development through labor force channel is also negative and statistically significant. However, the indirect effect of refugees through RD channel is statistically significant only for the low-income country group.
The paper is of theoretical and empirical character. It outlines considerations and studies pertaining to the perception of organizational culture of Austrian companies by Polish emigrants. When undertaking employment abroad, emigrants face a challenge of adapting to a new environment. The adaptation pertains to several aspects. Organizational culture is one of these. Therefore, the following research problem arises: What is the organizational culture of Austrian enterprises like?, and, Do emigrants experience problems with the cultural adaptation? Interviews with 40 Poles who worked a minimum of 5 years in Austria were conducted. The interviews revealed that respondents believed the organizational culture of Austrian companies was characterized by low power distance, individualism, activity, and status based upon achievements. The straightforward analysis was difficult to be made with regard to several values. This is true for low vs. high uncertainty tolerance, people vs. task focus, and focus on the outside vs. inside. The identified organizational culture of Austrian enterprises did not pose a significant barrier for respondents.
The question of migration within the European Union, as well as between its member and non-members states, has become recently an important issue. Among the EU and OECD countries, Poland is not a major recipient of immigrants. However, in recent years one can observe a growing number of both permanent and temporary immigrants, most of whom are Ukrainian citizens, whose main departure motive is work.
The main purpose of the paper is to conduct a comparison of the migration patterns for Poland and Ukraine, as well as survey the mutual causation forces that determine the structure of the Ukraine-Poland migration corridor.
The paper consists of three parts. It starts with an introduction followed, by theoretical backgrounds of migration, outlining its main types and models. The next parts highlight the volume, directions and structure of migration flows for Ukraine and Poland. The evolution of the Ukraine-Poland migration channel and its mutual effect on the economies of both countries is highlighted in the final part.
In this article, we employ a panel household survey from Tajikistan to study labor migrants’ location choices in Russia. We find that labor migrants from Tajikistan consider a wide variety of economic, demographic, and geographical characteristics of Russian regions when making location choices. We also find that experienced migrants are less responsive to current regional characteristics that might suggest path dependence in destination choices by experienced migrants.
Immigration is one of the heavily discussed subjects in modern academic and political debate. In recent decades, fiscal effects of international migration remained the centre of interest. The goal of this paper is to review and synthesise the available literature, devoted to the relationship between immigration and welfare systems, in order to present the state of the art in this area and draw conclusions for further research. Despite extensive literature, it is difficult to find an unambiguous answer to the question, whether immigrants are a burden or an asset to the state with redistributive policies. Moreover, some of the assumptions and approaches widely used in presented articles appear too simplistic or even unfounded.
The Eastern enlargements of the European Union (EU) since the early 2000s have included post-transitional economies at a lower level of development than the existing member states and thus, have significantly affected the East-West migration flows and labour markets on both sides. This has provided a distinctive opportunity to study the effects of liberalisation and to identify economic factors leading to migration flows with the purpose of enabling better estimations of future migration trends. In this research, a panel data analysis with pair of country fixed effects and time fixed effects is used to explore several pull and push factors of the East-West EU migration flows in the period from 2000 to 2017. Results indicate that emigration rate responds rather quickly to the changes in GDP per capita and unemployment rate of the youth population in immigration country, with statistically significant elasticity coefficients, suggesting that international migration contributes significantly to adjusting the labour supply to fluctuations in economic activity.