The aim of this research is to asses the hypothesis that foreign direct investment (FDI) and international trade have had a positive impact on innovation in one of the most significant economies in the world, the United States (U.S.). To do so, the author used annual data from 1995 to 2010 to build a set of econometric models. In each model, 11 in total) the number of patent applications by U.S. residents is regressed on inward FDI stock, exports and imports of the economy as a collective, and in each of the 10 SITC groups separately.
Although the topic of FDI is widely covered in the literature, there are still disagreements when it comes to the impact of foreign direct investment on the host economy [McGrattan, 2011]. To partially address this gap, this research approaches the host economy not only as an aggregate, but also as a sum of its components (i.e., SITC groups), which to the knowledge of this author has not yet been done on the innovation-FDI-trade plane, especially for the U.S.
Unfortunately, the study suffers from the lack of available data. For example, the number of patents and other used variables is reported in the aggregate and not for each SITC groups (e.g., trade). As a result, our conclusions regarding exports and imports in a specific SITC category (and the total) impact innovation in the U.S. is reported in the aggregate.
General notions found in the literature are first shown and discussed. Second, the dynamics of innovation, trade and inward FDI stock in the U.S. are presented. Third, the main portion of the work, i.e. the econometric study, takes place, leading to several policy applications and conclusions.
This paper accounts for the main determinants of Foreign Direct Investment stocks to 5-South East European Countries and the 10-New Member States of the European Union countries by using an augmented Gravity Model, for the purpose of calculating the potential levels of FDI stock in Macedonia. The study takes into account country specific institutional factors that determine foreign investors’ decisions from 20 core OECD countries to invest in SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. From the results of the study we find that gravity factors (market size and distance), institutional related factors (control of corruption, corruption perception index, regulatory quality, transition progress and WTO membership) and other traditional determinants of FDI (schooling, bilateral exports) appear to significantly determine inward FDI stock to the SEE region and new EU member states. The GMM estimates suggest that bilateral FDI stock is subject to persistence effects. The study additionally confirms the relatively strong gravitational character of Macedonia’s inward FDI stock.
The article aims at pointing out the differences in market reactions regarding the announcement of an investment of selected Sovereign Wealth Funds in companies listed on the London Stock Exchange. The research sample consists of 796 market transactions made by four selected Sovereign Wealth Funds. The author employed event study methodology to calculate the average abnormal returns and cumulative abnormal returns for each fund in subsamples. The empirical findings suggest that investors react differently to the information about a fund’s investment. To the best of the author’s knowledge, the literature does not provide any answer as to how the market reacts to information disclosure of individual funds. Therefore, this paper bridges the gap in the literature within this field.
The aim of the article is to conduct an empirical analysis of the impact of aggregate and disaggregate private capital flows on economic growth in eleven MENA countries between 1980 and 2018. Unlike prior empirical studies, the fixed effect panel quantile approach developed by Canay (2011) is implemented. Findings suggest that there is a significant difference in the effects of private capital flows on economic growth across lower and higher quantiles. More specifically, the effects of total private capital flows, foreign direct investment flows, portfolio flows and debt flows are positive and statistically significant only for low and medium quantiles, indicating that the enhancing impact of private capital flows in terms of economic growth is only confirmed in countries with relatively low and medium growth rates. Moreover, debt flows affect economic growth in countries recording high growth rates, stressing the importance of financial development in routing those flows into the most productive projects in the economy.
This paper gives an overview of foreign direct investment (FDI) in South Africa from 1980 to 2017. It highlights trends in FDI inflows, reforms that have been implemented to date, and challenges that need to be addressed in order to increase the FDI inflows into the country. Government reforms on FDI have been two pronged. Firstly, there are policies that are aimed at creating a strong competitive industry and a strong industrial base for investment. Among such policies are trade liberalisation policies, multilateral and regional integration policies, supportive industrial policies, and bilateral trade agreements. Secondly, there are policies that directly target the FDI investment. These policies include, amongst others, investment incentives, regulatory reforms, exchange control relaxation, and Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) reforms. The findings from this study show that FDI inflows have increased significantly from 1990 although they still remain depressed.
We empirically investigates the factors that affect Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows in five BRICS countries for the period 1990–2015. We address the selection bias and unobserved heterogeneity by estimating a panel Heckman selection method and attempts to account for both selection and endogeneity within the new two-stage method. After addressing the above mentioned econometric issues, the infrastructure and GDP per capita variables under the new two-stage method remain positive and significantly similar to the coefficient of infrastructure and GDP per capita under the panel Heckman selection model. In addition, the inverse Mills ratio maintain its level of statistical significance, confirming the presence of both sample selection bias and endogeneity.
This paper explores the influence of the quality of a host country’s institutional environment on outflows from that country of foreign direct investment. The main finding of this paper is that such quality does play an important role, particularly with respect to governance quality and political stability. This implies that better institutional conditions may reduce undesirable outflows of capital, and the quality of those institutions may impact FDI effectiveness in host countries.
The author of the article outlined the results of the research on the taxonomy and the specificity of the transfer of profits to shareholders of dividend companies which are components of the WIG, DAX, CAC40 and S&P 500 indexes for the period 2013-2019.The purpose of the article is a critical assessment of the systematic distribution of dividends by domestic and international companies, taking into account the rate of dividend growth, the cumulated rate of dividends and the average rate of return on investments in shares of these companies. The studies carried out included 120 companies listed on the Polish, German, French and American markets (30 companies in each country), which in the period 2013-2019 paid dividends and at the end of 2019 had the highest capitalization in a given index. Then the author analysed for each market only those issuers who paid the dividends without interruption during the period considered (continuously for 7 years).
When investigating foreign direct investment, scientists focus on different combinations of factors. They often emphasize the economic ones, while underestimating the others. Among the non-economic factors, there are several problems regarding the identification of relevant FDI determinants. The aim of this paper is the provision of a comprehensive review of the factors that are considered to impact the attraction of FDI and the identification of relevant FDI determinants. From the variety of factors, mentioned in the specialty literature, we identified eleven categories of FDI determinants. We also provided a comprehensive review of categorical and methodological interferences of the identified factors, proposing potential working hypothesis for future researches in the field. The final assessment of this study is the creation of a Synthesis of the factors influencing FDI.
The article takes up the issue of the characteristics and the implementation of the dividend policy of companies quoted on the Warsaw Stock Exchange in Warsaw for the period 2008-2017. The purpose of the research is the characteristics of dividend policy company satisfaction mechanism, including an assessment of its actual implementation. To study the characteristics and implementation of the dividend policy by the company’s dividend, eventually it was necessary to classify the companies that during the period of 2009-2018 paid dividends for the period 2008-2017 without a break (at 31.07.2018). The test results indicate a high average annual growth rate of paid dividends. Unfortunately, more than half of the companies developed a dividend policy and those that have it as the basis for their decision on the amount of payment of dividends indicate net profit and investment needs.