A 14-d study was undertaken to test the acute toxicity of a new preparation Vetom 21.77 based on the predacious fungus Duddingtonia flagrans. A total of 40 healthy 5-day-old broiler chickens (Hubbard F15, 100 ± 5 g), that had previously gone through a required 5-days adaptation to the environment, were orally dosed with the drug for 5 consecutive days at different doses, after which their health status was assessed daily up to the end of the experiment. According to the results, no substantial changes in the physiological state of the chickens were detected during the experiment. Internal organs weighing revealed no statistically significant differences between the groups, though weight coefficient values of internal organs of treated chickens slightly exceeded those of the control group. Some haematological parameters were significantly higher in the treatment group, without going beyond reference ranges. All chickens used in the experiment survived the study. The preparation has not produced any toxic effect even at a higher dose (4000 µL/kg bw/day). It is concluded that Vetom 21.77 pertains to preparations of IV toxicity class.
Interesting and challenging is not exactly that economic thinking is divided between those who admit that labour would be a good negotiated on its specific market segment and those who don’t, but other two-three aspects. The one is that those who do admit it are classic, neoclassic and (interestingly!) Marxian schools. The last thinkers certainly see it as pejorative. Interesting is equally that those who ‘reject labour market concept’ work around the Keynesian thinking school. The author of ‘General Theory…’ rejected the idea that employer and employee could ever be economically equal to each other and that labour could keep any real market supply specific behaviour. Thirdly, Keynes was the first one who pointed to unemployment as a real modern problem, but also interestingly his view on the same unemployment wasn’t satisfactory for our present.
At present, unemployment is a problem and even an unsolved one for the European economy and for the EU Organization. The EU documents might indicate it as a problem (and not only economic) and a policy priority, together with the wages issue, but basically employment and wages cannot make any policy priority against economic targets like productivity, cost reduction and industrial efficiency.
Integration of Southern Africa has resulted in changes in trade structures and production process across borders. The aim of this article is to present transformations taking place in the structure of trade exchange of the Southern African states (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland, and South Africa) that are members of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), and the position of South Africa in global value chains. South Africa seems to be the group of the most advanced countries in analyzed region. The analysis takes advantage of both the conventional methods of comprehensive study on international trade and the modern indicators and measures examining similarity, concentration or the position of South Africa in global value chains in general and sectoral terms.
This article analyzes comparative price levels of 10 new EU member countries from Central, East, and South-East Europe and discusses their main determinants. A comparison of comparative price levels is logically followed by a comparison of relative GDP per capita in purchasing power parities. Further, the Balassa-Samuelson efect is theoretically explained and empirically tested using a sample of EU27 countries (excluding Luxemburg). The results of simple regression analysis confrm that diferences in comparative price levels can be explained by the diferences in relative GDP per capita in purchasing power parities. Besides the Balassa-Samuelson efect there are, however, many other factors that have an impact on comparative price levels. Tey are related to the lower competitiveness of domestic companies on international markets as the result of such factors as a lower quality of production, inefcient organizational structures and management styles, insufcient marketing and business skills, or a poor approach to international distribution channels.
The results of single television observations of Perseid meteor shower in 2016 are presented. The Perseid shower occurs from 17 July to 24 August, peaking on or around August 12 every year. In 2016, the peak of the Perseids was Night of Aug 11 to the morning of Aug 12. The meteor video observations in Egypt are carried out at The National Researcher Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG). The system consists of TV - cameras Watec -902H Ultimate with the lens DV10x8SA-1 (8-80 mm (10x)) capable of recording the rapid motion of meteors entering the Earth atmosphere.
The recent enlargement of the EU (since 2004) and the United Kingdom's decision to leave the European Union have prompted a growing research interest in the political and academic environment because of the causes and consequences of migration between the CEE countries and those in the Western Europe. In this study, the effects of European economic integration on the number of EU-15 immigrants from the newly integrated EU countries were assessed by econometric techniques. According to panel data models, in the period 2000-2015, the number of migrants from the new member states of the EU has increased, in average, with more than 2200 people only due to their EU membership. This result reflects the positive impact of European economic integration on the number of emigrants from the CEE countries that chose the EU-15 states as destination countries. Moreover, according to some ridge Bayesian regressions, during the period 2004-2015, the EU-15 immigrants coming from the EU-13 states did not negatively affect the economic growth of the EU-15 countries.
V.A. Leonov, A.V. Bagrov, G.F. Attia, A.M. Abdelaziz and R. Ghoneim
Space debris of millimeter dimensions is almost not detectable by normal methods of observation from Earth. However, particles of such sizes can cause damage to the spacecraft. and even eliminate it. Estimating the status of impurity of near-Earth space mainly based on mathematical models, which are confirmed only for large particles. The millimetric fractions of space debris elements remain unexplored. In case of invasion of debris particles into the planet’s atmosphere, they burn down as well as meteoric particles of natural origin. In this work, the observation technique of separation of debris particles and particles of natural origin is described. Also, the results of the detection of particles from space debris received during the TV observations on the wide-angle camera patrol camera FAVOR (Russia, Northern Caucasus).
The article analyses the factors determining the vulnerability of the European countries to external shocks taking the example of the global 2008-2009 economic slowdown (also called the subprime crisis2) and its impact on economies in Europe. The particular attention is attached to factors related to the fundamentals of the economy, i.e. the GDP growth, fiscal and monetary stability and external stability. Attempting to level of the gap existing in the Polish literature in the empirical research on that problem, the hereby article also refers to wider problems of the macroeconomic factors enhancing economies' capabilities to meet the challenges of global crises and strengthening their competitiveness afterwards. The special attention in the paper was attached to the role of financial and trade openness.
In the empirical study we have assessed the macroeconomic “outside” of the crisis in the European economies and then we have run the regression model process to estimate the factors determining the exposure to those costs in cross-country perspective. The above mentioned macroeconomic costs are the relative falls (“gaps”) in GDP, i.e. the difference between the hypothetical GDP (resulting from the average mid-term trend) in 2008-2009 and actual GDP incurred in those two “crisis years”. In the regression model (crisis costs as the explained variable) we used the chosen data and indicators denoting the potential factors of the European countries' exposure to 2007-2009 crisis shock as explanatory variables.
As the calculation results show, the variables that contributed to higher 2008-2009 crisis effects in the European countries were among others: high unemployment and high real interest rates, considerable government sector debt before the crisis, high economic development level, high share of nonperforming credit portfolio and high share of equity in the banking sector's assets (signifying a relatively poorly developed banking system), as well as good quality of law. Greater costs of the 2007-2009 crisis were (on average) incurred by countries experiencing high inflation, rapid GDP growth (as compared to the other sample countries), and considerable share of investment in GDP before crisis, and the economies which were characterized by above-average industry concentration and high development of stock exchange and bank market. The study leads to a general conclusion that in case of the European countries, the recession only highlighted and enhanced many problems and unfavorable tendencies which had existed before.
In a previous (herein referred to as Ammar, Amin and Hassan Paper ) the statement of the problem was formulated and the basic visibility function between two satellites in terms of the orbital elements and time were derived. In this paper the perturbing effect due to drag force on the visibility function were derived explicitly up to O(e4), by using Taylor’s expansion for the visibility function about certain epoch. We determine the rise and set times of the satellites through the sign of the visibility function. Numerical examples were worked out for some satellites in order to check the validity of the work.
The study deals with the problems of Euroregions in the context of their multifunctionality. Multifunctionality is presented by analyzing the institutional structure and objectives pursued. The institutional structure presents the functions of individual Euroregional institutions and the importance of the Association of European Border Regions (AEBR) as the superior representation of Euroregions.
Referring to the objectives, they are presented in the light of the theoretical assumptions adopted for t his type of structure, emphasizing that in their implementation there is a “hidden” multifunctionality of the Euroregion. In addition, the implementation of t he objectives was verified in practice on the example of direct empirical research carried out in selected Polish Euroregions just after their creation and from the perspective of them operating for several years. Positive opinions in this respect, which prevail as integration awareness and the maturation of the Euroregion increases, support the establishment of such structures and verify their importance for the activation of border areas.