Wanmai Moleephan, Supeecha Wittayalertpanya, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi and Wacharee Limpanasithikul
expression. EMBO J. 2001; 20:5022-31.
23. Singh SK, Sarkar C, Mallick S, Saha B, Bera R, Bhadra R. Human placental lipid induces melanogenesis through p38 MAPK in B16F10 mouse melanoma. Pigment Cell Res. 2005; 18:113-21.
24. Corre S, Mekideche K, Adamski H, Mosser J, Watier E, Galibert MD. In Vivo and Ex Vivo UV-Induced Analysis of Pigmentation Gene Expressions. J Invest Dermatol. 2006; 126:917-9.
25. Romero GC, Aberdam E, Biagoli N, Massabni W, Ortonne J, Ballotti R. Ultraviolet B radiation acts through the nitric oxide and
Monika Savarin, Urska Kamensek, Maja Cemazar, Richard Heller and Gregor Sersa
targeted with GET of plasmid. 18 – 22 In particular, GET of shRNA for silencing endoglin in B16F10 melanoma mice tumors that express high levels of endoglin, resulted in up to 58% of tumor cures. 23
Tissue specific eukaryotic promoters are tightly regulated and mainly drive expression of transgene in specific cell types, although minimal unspecific expression in non-targeted tissue can also occur. 24 We constructed a plasmid containing a tissue specific promoter for endothelin and encoding shRNA for silencing endoglin. This plasmid was tested in a previous study
Simona Kranjc, Matej Kranjc, Janez Scancar, Jure Jelenc, Gregor Sersa and Damijan Miklavcic
electroporation. We assessed the feasibility and antitumor effectiveness of electroporation induced with PEMF as drug delivery system for CDDP to murine melanoma B16F10 subcutaneous tumors. To prove the underlying mechanism of electroporation we measured the platinum (Pt) bound to DNA in tumors. Electroporation induced by PEMF proved to facilitate drug uptake in tumors, such as CDDP, thus providing evidence of its feasibility and effectiveness.
Materials and methods
CDDP, a chemotherapeutic drug used in electrochemotherapy protocol in human and veterinary
Paolo Zucca, Antonio Argiolas, Mariella Nieddu, Manuela Pintus, Antonella Rosa, Fabrizio Sanna, Daniela Steri and Antonio Rescigno
S.W., Chen G.L., Du J.J. M., Wang L.H., An T.Y., Antioxidant properties and principal phenolic composition of Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. Int. J. Food Prop., 2014, 17, 13-25.
19. Kang M.S., Oh J.S., Kang I.C., Hong S.J., Choi C.H., Inhibitory effect of methyl gallate and gallic acid on oral bacteria. J. Microbiol., 2008, 46, 6, 744-750.
20. Liu C., Lin J.-J., Yang Z.-Y., Tsai C.-C., Hsu J.-L., Wu Y.-J., Proteomic study reveals a co-occurrence of gallic acid-induced apoptosis and glycolysis in B16F10 melanoma cells. J. Agric. Food
Objectives. Previously we have shown that 20 days after the tumor cells injection smaller melanomas have been developed in chemically sympathectomized mice in comparison with animals having intact sympathetic nervous system. However, it is known that chemical sympathectomy reduces the sympathetic neurotransmission only temporarily. In the present study, we monitored the survival of the sympathectomized mice with melanoma with an attempt to find out how long the suppressing effect of sympathectomy on the melanoma growth may endure.
Methods. The chemical sympathectomy was performed by intraperitoneal injection of neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine in male C57BL/6J mice. Seven days later, the animals were injected subcutaneously with B16-F10 melanoma cells. Then, melanoma development, survival of the tumor-bearing mice and weight of the developed tumor mass were analyzed.
Results. Sympathectomy delayed the development of the palpable tumors (18th day vs.14th day) and significantly prolonged the survival of the tumor-bearing mice (median 34 days vs. 29 days). However, the weight of the developed melanoma was significantly increased in the sympathectomized mice in comparison with the animals having intact sympathetic nervous system.
Conclusions. The data of the present study showed that effect of the chemical sympathectomy, performed before the tumor growth induction, persisted even at the time when sympathetic nerves started to regenerate that resulted in a prolonged survival of the mice with melanoma. However, comparing to our previous study, in which we have shown a reduced tumor mass in earlier stages of the tumor growth, specifically 20 days after melanoma cells injection, now we indicate that in later stages of the melanoma progression, the tumor mass was significantly increased in sympathectomized animals. These contra-intuitive findings may indicate that interventions affecting the sympathetic nervous system may exert complex effect on the tumor progression. Based on these data we may suggest that the potential therapeutic interventions affecting the sympathetic signaling in the tumor tissue and its microenvironment should attenuate the sympathetic neurotransmission not only temporarily but till the complete regression of the tumor tissue.
Simona Sabou, Bianca Avram-Pop and Liliana Adela Zima
The purpose of this study is to identify the behavior of customers in the online environment. We analyzed the evolution, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of this type of commerce, and its implications on the consumers. In order to identify the customers’ behavior online, we selected three variables which are characterized by time intervals of the latest online order, and six variables which analyze the main problems faced by consumers of goods/services bought online (a long shipping time, damaged products, non-compliant products, fraud related issues, underperforming complaint system, technical issues, lack of customer and legal aspects). Online commerce is less developed in the Czech Republic, Romania, Poland, Lithuania, Ireland, Bulgaria, Estonia, Slovenia and Norway. But, the advantages of ecommerce weigh more for the consumer than the problems they face, for example: online shoppers will continue to make online purchases even if they have experienced delays in delivering goods/services, damaged products, online fraud, technical problems or difficulties in finding information about the warranty of goods/services.
In this paper we analyse the Kaczmarz projection algorithm with Remotest set and Random control of projection indices and provide a suficient condition such that each projection index appears infinitely many times during the iterations.
The development of a service economy and the more and more noticeable phenomenon of servicization have become inseparable elements in the evolution of the modern economy. The goal of this paper is to analyse the impact of servicization on selected economies, both in terms of GDP and employment structure, as well as on changes in foreign trade. The secondary, but still important aim is to examine the relationship between servicization and innovation processes. Based on the conducted research, it can be stated that the process of servicization occurs in both developed post-industrial economies and increasingly often in developing countries. Moreover, the analysis of the relationship between the general level of innovation in the economy and the degree of its servicization, showed that in many countries higher innovation is often associated with a stronger role of the service sector in the economy. The dynamics of structural change taking place in the “deagrarianization-deindustrialization-servicization” chain is therefore substantially influenced by technological progress.
International trade quite often includes intra-industry trade (IIT) – definition classifies IIT as trading with similar goods or services belonging to the same industry; which are simultaneously imported and exported by a particular country during the specific time period, mainly on a yearly basis. On the other hand, foreign direct investments (FDI) directly influence international trade, and intra-industry trade, as well. According to the recent research during last decades a revival of interest in intra-industry trade has been noted; both on micro and macro level. The standard Grubel-Lloyd formula is still being used for empirical work. This however refers only to international trade, disregarding capital flows, and FDI. Given the overwhelming importance of the latter, this paper tries to research for relevant data in this regard. The objectives of the paper are to present fundamental theoretical framework linked to IIT, and more specifically to research a direct link that IIT and FDI form in contemporary international economic relations. In addition to presented theory related to the subjects of research, further observation includes analysis of empirical research and case studies. This enables the authors to draw conclusions and, therefore, suggest potential implications for development policy.
The presence of different risk factors in international trade gives evidence of the necessity of support in gaps that may affect exporters’ activity. To maximize the trade volumes and in the same time to minimize the exporters’ risks the stakeholders use trade credit insurance. The paper provides analysis of conceptual background of the trade credit insurance in the world. We analyzed briefly the problems, arising in insurance markets due to asymmetric information, such as adverse selection and moral hazard. Also we discuss the main stages of development of trade credit insurance in countries worldwide. Using comparative and graphical analysis we provide a brief evaluation of the dynamics of claims and recoveries for different forms of trade credit insurance. We found that the claims related to the commercial risk for medium and long trade credits in recent years exceed the recoveries, while with the political risk the reverse trend holds. And we originally consider these findings in terms of information asymmetry in the trade credit insurance differentiated by type of risk.