Search Results

1 - 10 of 36 items :

  • "European youths" x
Clear All

Abstract

This paper investigates the effect of peer smoking on individual smoking among youths in 10 countries that participated in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). I control for endogeneity in school selection and unobserved school-level characteristics through the use of school fixed-effects. I use instrumental variables to address the simultaneity in peer and individual behaviours. Identification arises by comparing students in different classes within the same school. On average, an increase in the share of classmates who smoke by 10 percentage points increases the probability that an individual in that class will smoke by 3 to 6.9 percentage points. The results imply that any policy intervention such as anti-smoking messages, smoking bans, or higher cigarette prices will be even more cost-effective because of the social multiplier effect of peers – policies affecting some individuals in a group will generate spillovers to others through the peer effect.

Abstract

Reaching agreement on child protection and the media at a joint European level is a difficult process, as national differences regarding film classifications would appear to be too great. On the basis of interviews conducted with leading classifiers in Great Britain, Sweden, Denmark, France, Portugal, Spain and Ireland, the considerable differences in the rationales behind the respective national classification concepts are examined in terms of how children and adolescents in Europe are granted autonomy and responsibility, and what role parents play in this. The basic plea is for more attention to be given to the intercultural dimensions of the relationship between children, adolescents and adults in further work to develop a European youth media protection act.

Abstract

We analyse the access to different institutional pathways to higher education for second-generation students, focusing on youths that hold a higher-education entrance certificate. The alternative vocational pathway appears to compensate to some degree, compared to the traditional academic one, for North-African and Southern-European youths in France, those from Turkey in Germany, and to a lesser degree those from Portugal, Turkey, Ex-Yugoslavia, Albania/Kosovo in Switzerland. This is not the case in Switzerland for Western-European, Italian, and Spanish youths who indeed access higher education via the academic pathway more often than Swiss youths. Using youth panel and survey data, multinomial models are applied to analyse these pathway choices.

References CHISHOLME, L. and KOVACHEVA, S. (2002) Exploring the European youth mosaic. The social situation of young people in Europe, Strasbourg: Council of Europe. DURKHEIM, É.(2002) Elementární formy náboženského života: systém totemismu v Austrálii, Praha: Oikoymenh. FOX, J. (2005) ‘Secularization’ In. J. Hinnells (ed): The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion, London: Routledge, pp. 291-305. HLAVINKOVÁ, L. (2007) Socializmus jako sekularizovaná společnost: ”,Být věřícím” v době socialism - připadová studie, In. T. Bublík and H. Hoffmann (eds

References Aked, J., Steuer, N., Lawlor, E. and Spratt, S., (2009). Backing the future: why investing in children is good for us all. London: New Economics Foundation. Banerji, A. et. al. (2014). Youth Unemployment in Advanced Economies in Europe: Searching for Solutions. Washington: International Monetary Fund. Britton, j. et. al. (2011). The Early Bird… Preventing Young People from becoming a NEET statistic. Bristol: Bristol University. Călăfăteanu, Adina-Marina (2012), European Youth Policy regarding Active Youth Participation - Study analysis: Gorj County

impacts of the CAP. Document presented at the WHO Forum on Trade and Healthy Food and Diets Montréal , 2007 http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/esa/Global_persepctives/Presentations/Montreal-JS.pdf 12. Cordain L, Eaton SB, Sebastian A et al. Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr 81: 341-354, 2005. 13. Patterson E, Warnberg J, Kearney J, Sjostrom M. Sources of saturated fat and sucrose in the diets of Swedish children and adolescents in the European Youth Heart Study: 2010, strategies for improving

in the relationship between FDI and entrepreneurial activity. Small Business Economics , 1–19. Blomstrom, M., & Kokko, A. (2003). Human capital and inward FDI. Working Paper , 167. Chigunta, F. (2002). Youth Entrepreneurship: Meeting the Key Challenges, European Youth Forum Position Paper on Youth Entrepreneurship. Deyo, F. C. (1989). Beneath the Miracle: Labor Substitution in the New Asian Industrialism . Berkeley: University of California Press. Dunning, J. H. (2002). Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment: Globalization Induced Changes and the Role of FDI

References Armstrong N., J.R. Welsman (2006) The Physical activity patterns of European Youth with reference to methods of assessment. Sports Med . 36:1067-1086. Baquet G., S. Brthoin, E. Vn Praagh (2002) Are intensified physical education sessions able to elicit heart rate at a sufficient level to promote aerobic fitness in adolescents? Res.Q. Exerc.Sport 73:282-288. Boreham C., J. Tisk, L. Mrray, M. Svage, J.JStrain, G. Can (2001) Fitness, fatness and coronary heart disease risk in adolescents: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. Med.Sci, Sports

-253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2014.12.006 Nancy, J. (2016). European Youth in 2016. European Parliament. Retrieved from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/pdf/eurobarometre/2016/eye2016/eb85_1_eye_2016_analytical_overview_en.pdf Sloam, J. (2014). New Voice, Less Equal: The Civic and Political Engagement of Young People in the United States and Europe. Comparative Political Studies, 47(5), 663-688. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414012453441 Warren, M. A., Sulaiman, A.,& Jaafar, I. N. (2014). Social media effects on fostering online civic engagement and building citizen

), Human resource management, 13th edition, Pearson, New York. European Quality Charter on Internships and Apprenticeships, available on line at: qualityinternships.eu, accessed on October 15th 2016. European Youth Forum (n.d.), Quality internships, available on line at: http://www.youthforum.org/quality-internships/, accessed on October 20th 2016 Gaudreau, P.A., Kufel, A.P. and Parks, D.J., (2006), “Quality internships for school leaders: Meeting the challenge”, AASA Journal of Scholarship and Practice, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 27-30. Girard, T.C. (1999), "Interns perceptions