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Ferreira SS, CT Hotta
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Musiliu O. Adedokun, John O. Ayorinde and Michael A. Odeniyi
The binding properties of Eucalyptus gum obtained from the incised trunk of Eucalyptus tereticornis, were evaluated in paracetamol tablet formulations, in comparison with that of Gelatin B.P. In so doing, the compression properties were analyzed using density measurements and the compression equations of Heckel, Kawakita and Gurham. In our work, the mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed using the crushing strength and friability of the tablets, while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration and dissolution times. The results of the study reveal that tablet formulations incorporating Eucalyptus gum as binder, exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing gelatin. What is more, the Gurnham equation could be used as a substitute for the Kawakita equation in describing the compression properties of pharmaceutical tablets. Furthermore, the crushing strength, disintegration and dissolution times of the tablets increased with binder concentration, while friability values decreased. We noted that no significant differences in properties exist between formulations derived from the two binders (p > 0.05) exist. While tablets incorporating gelatin exhibited higher values for mechanical properties, Eucalyptus gum tablets had better balance between mechanical and release properties - as seen from the CSFR/Dt values. Tablets of good mechanical and release properties were prepared using Eucalyptus gum as a binder, and, therefore, it could serve as an alternative binder in producing tablets with good mechanical strength and fast drug release.
The genus Eucalyptus encompasses several species of industrial importance. Many of these species have been subjected to genetic characterization using different kinds of DNA markers. More than 1000 microsatellites have been identified from the genome of eucalypts and they are highly amenable for cross species transferability. During cross amplification of microsatellites, homoplasy is reported in many species in which although the allele size might be the same, the sequences are not. Thus, it is essential to ascertain the DNA sequence homology with source and target microsatellite repeats. Accordingly, fifty five alleles from six microsatellite loci (ECc1, ECc2, Eg61, Embra100, Embra1468 and Embra2002) were amplified in two inter-specific hybrid populations (Eucalyptus tereticornis × E. grandis and E. tereticornis × E. camaldulensis) and sequenced. The results showed that all the microsatellite loci were amplifying the target repeat types except for the loci Eg61 and Embra2002. The locus Eg61 has target repeat of (CAA)(GAT) but the sampled alleles had either (CAA)(GAT) or (GAT) alone. Similarly, the Embra2002 locus was targeting interrupting repeats of (CCA)..(CCA), but the sequenced alleles had repeats of (CCA) with or without interruption. Nevertheless, the allele size estimated in electrophoresis for hybrids was in conformity with that of the parent alleles. This study suggests the need for validation of the repeat characteristics of microsatellites by sequencing of the alleles particularly in cross species amplification.
H. S. Ginwal, Pradip Kumar, V. K. Sharma and A. K. Mandal
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