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References Abegaz, A., Winowiecki, L.A., Vågen, T.G., Langan, S. & Smith J.U. (2016). Spatial and temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon in landscapes of the upper Blue Nile basin of the Ethiopian highlands. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. , 218, 190–208. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2015.11.019. Abrham, K., Heluf, G., Tekalign, M. & Kibebew K. (2012). Impact of altitude and land use type on some physical and chemical properties of acidic soils in Tsegede highlands, Northern Ethiopia. Open Journal of Soil Science , 2, 223–233. DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2012.23027 Adugna, A. & Abegaz

-89. Bayabil, H.K., Tilahun, S.A., Collick, A.S., Yitaferu, B., Steenhuis, T.S., 2010. Are runoff processes ecologically or topographically driven in the (sub) humid Ethiopian highlands? The case of the Maybar watershed. Ecohydrology, 3, 457-466. DOI: 10.1002/eco.170. Beven, K.J., Kirkby, M.J., 1979. A physically based, variable contributing area model of basin hydrology. Hydrol. Sci. Bull., 24, 43-69. Bewket, W., Sterk, G., 2003. Assessment of soil erosion in cultivated fields using a survey methodology for rills in the Chemoga watershed, Ethiopia. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ

nutrient changes with fortified cow dung, Nigeria. African Journal of Plant Science, 2, 19-22. Bayabil, H.K., Tilahun, S.A., Collick, A.S., Steenhuis, T.S., 2010. Are runoff processes ecologically or topographically driven in the Ethiopian Highlands? The case of the maybar. Ecohydrology, 3, 4, 457-466. Bernhard-Reversat, F., 1987. Soil nitrogen mineralization under a Eucalyptus plantation a natural Acacia forest in Senegal. Forest Ecology and Management, 23, 233-244. Bernhard-Reversat, F., 1999. The leaching of Eucalyptus hybrids and Acacia auriculiformis leaf

References Abiy, A.Z., 2009. Geological controls in the formations and expansions of Gullies over hillslope hydrological processes in the highlands of Ethiopia, Northern Blue Nile Region. Cornell University. Bayabil, H.K., Tilahun, S.A., Collick, A.S., Yitaferu, B., Steenhuis, T.S., 2010. Are runoff processes ecologically or topographically driven in the (sub) humid Ethiopian highlands? The case of the Maybar watershed. Ecohydrology, 3, 457-466. Bewket, W., Sterk, G., 2002. Farmers' participation in soil and water conservation activities in the Chemoga watershed

., Abate, S., Zemale, F.A., Ayana, E.K., Tilahun, S.A., Steenhuis, T.S., 2015. Impact of conservation practices on runoff and soil loss in the sub-humid Ethiopian Highlands: The Debre Mawi watershed. J. Hydrol. Hydromech, 63, 210-219. DOI: 10.1515/johh-2015-0021. Descheemaeker, K., Nyssen, J., Poesen, J., Raes, D., Haile, M., Muys, B., Deckers, S., 2006. Runoff on slopes with restoring vegetation: a case study from the Tigray highlands, Ethiopia. Journal of Hydrology, 331, 219-241. Dessie, M., Verhoest, N.E.C., Admasu, T., Pauwels, V.R.N., Poesen, J., Adgo, E., Deckers

Abstract

Intensive agricultural practice in Ethiopian highlands results in increasing rates of soil erosion and reservoir sedimentation. The estimation of sediment yield and prediction of the spatial distribution of soil erosion on the upper Megech reservoir catchment enables the local governments and policymakers to maximize the design span life of the Megech reservoir through implementing appropriate soil conservation practices. For this study, the sediment yield was estimated and analyzed through hydrological modeling (SWAT). The simulated outputs of the model show that the mean annual surface runoff was 282 mm and the mean annual streamflow was 153 m3/s. Similarly, 12.33 t/ha mean annual total sediment load gets into the Megech reservoir. The model performance standard used to evaluate the model result indicates that the model was superior in performing the trend of runoff and sediment yield in both calibration and validation periods. Finally, the most erosion vulnerable sub-basins that could have a significant impact on the sediment yield of the reservoir were identified. Based on this, sub-basin 7, 25, 27, 18 and 29 were found to be the most erosion sensitive areas that could have a significant contribution to the increment of sediment yield in the Megech reservoir. Considering the land use, soil type, slope, and relief of erosion vulnerable sub-basins cut off drains, fallow land, contour ploughing, Fanya juu terraces, soil bunds combined with trenches and trees could be the possible management strategies to reduce the sediment yield in the catchment.

.J., Steenhuis, T.S., 2013. Eco-hydrological impacts of Eucalyptus in the semi humid Ethiopian Highlands: the Lake Tana Plain. J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 61, 21-29. Czachor, H., Lichner, Ľ., 2013. Temperature influences water sorptivity of soil aggregates. J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 61, 84- -87. Himmelbauer, M.L., Vateva, V., Lozanova, L., Loiskandl, W., Rousseva, S., 2013. Site effects on root characteristics and soil protection capability of two cover crops grown in South Bulgaria. J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 61, 30-38. Nikodem, A., Kodešová, R., Bubeníčková, L., 2013. Simulation of

-188. Blažek Václav. 2006. East Cushitic Classification. Paper presented at the 36th "Colloquium on African languages and linguistics. " Leiden: Ms. Blažek Václav, Záhořík Jan. 2008[09]. "Bayso: an Endangered Language of the Ethiopian Highlands." In: Machalík et al. 2008[09], 53-70. Ehret Christopher; Ali M. Nuuh. 1984. "Soomaali Classification." In: Labahn 1984: 201-269. Gragg Gene B. 1982. Oromo Dictionary. East Lansing: African Studies Center. Heine Bernd. 1976. "Notes on the Rendille Language (Kenya)." Afrika und Übersee 59, 176-223. Heine Bernd. 1981. "The Waata

REFERENCES Cammeraat, E.L.H., Kooijman, A.M., 2009. Biological control of pedological and hydro-geomorphological processes in a deciduous forest ecosystem. Biologia, 64, 428–432. Dagnew, D.C., Guzman, C.D., Zegeye, A.D., Tibebu, T.Y., Getaneh, M., Abate, S., Zemale, F.A., Ayana, E.K., Tilahun, S.A., Steenhuis, T.S., 2015. Impact of conservation practices on runoff and soil loss in the sub-humid Ethiopian Highlands: The Debre Mawi watershed. J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 63, 210–219. De Baets, S., Torri, D., Poesen, J., Salvador, M.P., Meersmans, J., 2008. Modelling

., 2002. Blue Gold: The fight to stop the corporate theft of the world’s fresh water. New York, The New Press, ISBN: 1-5684-816-6. Bayabil, H.K., Tilahun, S.A., Collick, A.S., Yitaferu, B., Steenhuis, T.S., 2010. Are runoff processes ecologically or topographically driven in the (sub) humid Ethiopian highlands? The case of Maybar Watershed. Ecohydrology, 3, 457-466, 2010. Bonell, M., Bruijnzeel, L.A., 2004. Forest, water and people in the humid tropics: past, present and future hydrological research for integrated land and water management. Cambridge University Press