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Research on synanthropic flora was conducted in the orchards of central Poland (near Skierniewice, Łowicz and Grójec). In the 2007-2010 time period, 390 phytosociological releves were taken, which included herbicide fallow under trees, swarm of inter-rows, tillage places, trodden and rutty places, roadsides, boundary stripes and drainage ditches. In the examined orchards the occurrence of 186 species belonging to 39 botanical families was noted. The most numerously represented were: Asteraceae (21%), Poaceae (15%), Brassicacea (8%) and Fabaceae (7%). In the examined orchards, 60% of the found species occurred occasionally or rarely. Those species which were found at the 15% level were: Equisetum arvense, Polygonum aviculare, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Stellaria media, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Convolvulus arvensis, Viola arvensis, Epilobium adenocaulon, Conyza canadensis, Taraxacum officinale, Poa annua, and Echinochloa crus-galli. All of these species which occurred at the 15% level were most frequently noted in the herbicide fallow and were recognised as the most significant orchard weeds. The most numerous group in the examined orchards was made up of the therophytes (50%), which predominated over hemicryptophytes (31%) and geophytes (10%). Apophytes - native species (59%) predominated over archeophytes (33%) and kenophytes (8%). Within the vascular flora of the examined orchards, those which were predominant were the segetal species (26%), ruderal species (21%) and meadow species (19%).
Weeds competing with seedlings of trees for nutrients, moisture, light and space, drown out their growth in nurseries and forest crops. Currently, in forestry, weed control is mainly carried out in forest nurseries, less often during the preparation of the area intended for afforestation, but sporadically in forest crops. The most important species of weeds threatening seedlings of forest trees include Senecio vulgaris, S. silvaticus, Deschampsia caespitosa, Pteridium aquilinum, Agropyron repens, Calamagrostis epigeios and Equisetum arvense.
In Poland, herbicides have the largest share (about 50%) in the sale of plant protection products, but the scale of their use in forests is small, compared to agriculture. In 2012, 915 herbicides were registered in the country, out of which only 14 products (0.5%) were for use in forestry. In the years 1999–2019, 31 herbicides were registered for the protection of forest nurseries and crops, which included 13 active substances belonging to 11 chemical groups, of which 9 active substances have been used up to now. Most herbicides (15–16) were used in the years 2004–2006, the lowest in 1999–2000 and in 2014 (4 products). The most popular active substance has been glyphosate contained in 18 products.
Introduction: The use of dietary supplements has been observed for many years. Unfortunately, the status of food supplements and main differences between these and drugs remain unknown to most consumers.
Objective: The purpose of the study was to analyze the opinions of future healthcare professionals on dietary supplements, their behavior concerning food supplementation, as well as their knowledge on the safety of these products.
Methods: The survey was conducted among 354 future healthcare professionals, using a questionnaire composed of 21 items exploring demographic characteristics, knowledge of supplements, reasons for the use of dietary supplement, and recall of the use.
Results: All respondents knew that the purpose of using these products is supplementation. A vast majority of respondents (83.9%) thought that a diet with no supplementation is possible or probably possible. 49.4% of respondents (n=175) declared taking food supplements. The most commonly used ones (68.6%) were products recommended during illness and used to improve the condition of skin, hair, and nails. Moreover, dietary supplements mentioned by students included those containing herbal ingredients, such as: Equisetum arvense, Allium sativum, Panax ginseng, and Ginkgo biloba. Most of respondents buy dietary supplements at pharmacies (89.14%).
Conclusions: Use of dietary supplements is widespread among students. Future healthcare professionals have a better knowledge on food supplementation than population of Poland in general, however, they still need good education in this matter.
The paper focuses on a research carried out during two consecutive growing seasons (2011 and 2012) in a willow tree stand (Salix schwerinii × S. viminalis, variety Tordis) and a grass stand of miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deuter). Both of the species can be used for energy production. The evaluation was carried out in a research centre located in Kolíňany (Nitra district area, SW Slovakia). Biodiversity of the ground flora within the two crops stands was jointly assessed through the multivariate statistical method of Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The results showed that almost all spontaneous vascular plant species have a weedy character, they have no specific environment requirements, they are stress tolerant, and their propagules are often present in agricultural ecosystems or in vegetation of rural landscape (field margins, strip boundaries, abandoned fields, orchards, etc.). Good examples of synanthropic species observed in the stands are Cirsium arvense, Equisetum arvense, Convolvulus arvensis etc., while several other typical species of usually non-synanthropic, habitats, e.g. Symphytum officinale, Persicaria lapathifolia, Calystegia sepium were also observed. Many juvenile shrub and wood species occurring in E1 and E2 layers also belonged to the semi-natural vegetation, e.g. Sambucus nigra, Rosa canina agg., Crataegus laevigata. The presence of potentially invasive and expansive plant species is evaluated as a negative factor.
Research on synanthropic flora was conducted on the strawberry plantations in Central Poland (surroundings of Skierniewice). In 2007-2010, 104 phytosociological releves were taken on plantations - in herbicide fallow, tillage places, and mulched places. The same number of releves was taken in surroundings of plantations - trodden and rutty places and roadsides. In the plantations examined, the occurrence of 127 species belonging to 30 botanical families was noted, out of which Asteraceae (17%), Poaceae (15%), Brassicacea (11%), Fabaceae (9%) and Polygonaceae (8%) were represented most numerously. 61% of species found in the plantations occurred occasionally or rarely. 21%, among others Equisetum arvense, Polygonum aviculare, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Stellaria media, Capsella bursapastoris, Geranium pusillum, Convolvulus arvensis, Viola arvensis, Galinsoga parviflora, Cirsium arvense, Taraxacum officinale, Poa annua, Echinochloa crus-galli, occurred frequently or very frequently in the herbicide fallow and tillage places. They were recognised as the most significant strawberry weeds. The most numerous group in the plantations constituted of therophytes (64%), which predominated over hemicryptophytes (20%) and geophytes (11%). Apophytes - native species (48%) predominated over archeophytes (39%) and kenophytes (9%). Within the vascular flora of the plantations examined, segetal species (43%), ruderal species (20%) and meadow species (14%) were predominant. Among the 48 species noted in the plantation surroundings therophytes (48%) predominated over hemicryptophytes (35%) and geophytes (13%). In trodden and rutty places and roadsides, apophytes (60%) predominated over archeophytes (25%) and kenophytes (15%). Ruderal species (50%) were more numerous than meadow species (15%) and segetal species (8%).