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violation of human rights – customers perspective. Bialostockie Studia Prawnicze . Vol. 24, Nr. 2 (2019), pp. 101–122. Consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union [2012] OJ C 326/1 DELREUX, Tom, HAPPAERTZ, Sander. Environmental Policy and Politics in the European Union, 1st edn, Macmillan International Higher Education, 2016, 320 pp. Directive (EU) 2019/1161 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 amending Directive 2009/33/EC on the promotion of clean and energy-efficient road

References Quarrie, J. (ed.) Earth Summit '92. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro 1992 , The Regency Press Corporation, UK, 1992. Lagzdina, E., Ernsteins, R. Environmental policy planning in urban municipalites Proceedings of the 7th International scientific and practical conference "Environment, Technology, Resources', June 25-27, 2009, Rezekne, Latvia, Rezekne Higher Education Institute, 2009, pp.134.-144 ( in Latvian ). Second Local Agenda 21 Survey , ICLEI, Freiburg 2002. Ernsteins, R., Kursinska, S., Stals, A

Strategical Perspective of Corporate Environmental Policy

The authors of the article analyze the benefits of corporate environmental policy in pursuance of a competitive advantage in the global market. Corporate environmental policy described as a strategic business investment opens new possibilities for their relationships with stakeholders and contributes to the promotion of social activity and to the attainment of the competitive advantage. By emphasizing the positive environmental policy's impact on competitive advantage of corporation in the global market the article treats of corporate environmental performance benefits, which are defined as improvement of relations with all stakeholders, intensification of corporation image, reputation development, business growth and customer loyalty. The paper deals with the development of Lithuanian corporate environmental policy in recent years and investigates the relationship between corporation activities and the improvement of relations with the stakeholders, which influences intensification of corporation's image and thereby increases competitive advantage of corporation. Researching the impact of corporate environmental policy on increasing competitive advantage, the authors found that active environmental performance positively influences business relationships with stakeholder groups and increases their competitive advantage in the global market.


This paper analyses the evolution of the new environmental policy of the European Union in the context of the efforts undertaken to moderate the negative effects of climate change. It describes all the activities in the European Union designed to implement new tools of the EU environmental policy, such as low carbon economy technologies, tools that improve the efficiency of managing the limited natural resources, the environmentally friendly transport package, etc. All of them are aimed at laying the foundations of the circular economy, which may also be referred to as a closed-loop economy, i.e., an economy that does not generate excessive waste and whereby any waste becomes a resource.

of a Carbon Tax.” Harvard Environmental Law Review 33, 499. Montag, J. 2015. “Th e Simple Economics of Motor Vehicle Pollution: A Case for Fuel Tax.” Energy Policy 85, 138 - 149. Murray, B. and N. Rivers. 2015. “British Columbia’s Revenue-Neutral Carbon Tax: A Review of the Latest ‘Grand Experiment’ in Environmental Policy.” Energy Policy 86, 674 - 683. OECD. 1991. Recommendation of the Council on the Use of Economic Instruments in Environmental Policy. Paris: OECD. OECD. 1997. Evaluating Economic Instruments for Environmental Policy. Paris: OECD. OECD. 2005


In the context of new environmental paradigms for the efficient customization of both traditional and renewable energy systems, the international regulations aim to be effective sources of alignment. The control practices in a big state-owned enterprise are the concepts implemented in this paper into a multi-criteria decision-making model for understanding, observing and accommodate the personnel for reaching high service quality. The best practices for effective policy design are alternatives in an Analytic Network Processes model designed and estimated by the staff in the audit department of the Romanian Regulatory Authority for Energy (RRAE). This model integrates all the national and international regulations at which the Romanian Regulatory Authority for Energy adhered and it determines what is the practical measures need to be taken at the level of each and every employee, in terms of individual forms of evaluation, so that principles regarding the implementation of the energy efficient systems produce tangible effects. The conceptual instrument considered for the effective alignment is the internal marketing. Internal marketing as a method built the foundation of a multi-criteria decision-making model whose alternatives are employees” evaluations forms. The model designed and estimated by staff in the audit department of the Romanian Regulatory Authority for Energy is developed using the analytic network processes theory (ANP) and the SuperDecisions software.

of the term is extended to be applied to programmes and policies ( ESPON Project 3.1 2004 , p. 432). The ESPON 2006 programme has been set up to support policy development and to build a European scientific community in the field of territorial development. The main aim is to increase the general body of knowledge about territorial structures, trends and policy impacts in an enlarged European Union. The aim of this article is to develop a TIA methodology for EU environmental policies and programmes. Based on the analysis of existing impact assessment approaches

References Ahlen, Jan (2009): The “EU Effect” and the Export of Environmental Standards to the U.S., University Libraries, available at: Bhagwati, Jagdish (2005): In Defense of Globalization, Oxford University Press Garvey, James (2008): The Ethics of Climate Change, right and wrong in a warming world, Continuum International Publishing Group Hey, Christian (2005): EU Environmental Policies: A short history of the policy strategies, EU Environmental Policy Handbook Honda, Keiichiro (2012): The Effect of EU


In this paper we investigate the impact of environmental taxes on CO2 emissions in the context of emerging market economies. An attempt has been made to identify what role environmental policy and specific tax policy measures play in understanding the relationship between economic development and environmental degradation. The empirical analysis covers ten Central and Eastern European countries in the period from 1995 to 2015. The latest data on environmental taxes are available only from 1995. We contribute to recent literature in two respects. First, we study this relationship within a dynamic framework in which we take into account the issues of serial correlation and endogeneity in the regressors due to the cointegration relationship. Specifically, we rely on the fully-modified least squares (FM-OLS) estimation technique to model the long-term relationship between income and carbon-dioxide emissions. Second, this paper advances our understanding on the effectiveness of tax policy measures in curbing CO2 emissions, on which we have scarce empirical evidence. The results of this analysis provide rather strong evidence in support of an inverted U-shaped relationship between economic growth and the environment. However, environmental taxes do not seem to be effective in modifying the behaviour of economic agents and in protecting the environment. The results are robust to different models.

és igazgatás . Debrecen: Debreceni Egyetemi Kiadó. [8] Faragó, T. (2013), A hazai környezetügy az elmúlt negyedszázadban . Budapest: Országgyűlés Fenntartható Fejlődés Bizottsága. [9] Berg, M. M. (1999), Environmental protection and the Hungarian transition. The Social Science Journal 36(2), 227–250. [10] Miklós, L., Špinerová, A. (2009), The environmental conditions in [the] Carpathian Basin and the environmental policy of [the] European Union. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Agriculture and Environment 1, 83–92. [11] Csutora, M., Kerekes, S. (2004), A