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The microfluidic channel with a planar inductive microcoil for the cell membrane permeabilization and the integrated planar electrodes for cell dielectrophoretic manipulation is proposed and analyzed in the study. The analyzed setup is based on the dielectrophoretic entrapment of the biological cell followed by membrane permeabilization using high pulsed magnetic field. The finite element method analysis of the DEP force and the generated pulsed magnetic field is performed. Based on finite element method analysis the potential applications of the setup in the fields of drug delivery, biomedicine and biotechnology are discussed.
Effect of core and surface cross-linking on the entrapment of metronidazole in pectin beads
The purpose of this study was to improve the entrapment efficiency of the water-soluble drug metronidazole using internal cross-linking agents. Calcium pectinate beads containing metronidazole were prepared by dropping a drug-pectin solution in 1% and 5% (m/V) calcium chloride for surface cross-linked beads. For the core cross-linked beads calcium carbonate was dispersed in the drug-pectin solution. The beads were characterized by particle size, swelling ratio, SEM, DSC, and in vitro drug release. It was found that the beads obtained by core cross-linking produced more drug entrapped beads than the surface cross-linked beads. Beads obtained using 1% (m/V) calcium chloride showed more drug entrapment than these obtained using 5% calcium chloride. The core cross-linking of pectin beads reduced drug loss by about 10--20%. The water lodging capacity of beads depended upon gel strength which is a function of the internal gelling agent and pectin concentration. Complete drug release was observed within 30--60 min in the acidic dissolution medium. This work has showed that the core cross-linking agent increases the water-soluble drug entrapment in calcium pectinate beads.
to be aimed at not only
the leading representatives of the national political scene, but also at the area of national
economy, economy and culture, discussions keep arising especially in the lay public
about the enactment of the institute of the so called agent provocateur into the Czech
legal environment. This institute has many supporters and also many opponents. Also
some foreign legislations could be an inspiring element for the Czech legislation.
Keywords: criminal liability, entrapment, encouragement, organized crime, corruption,
In this study sol-gel hybrid materials in the system SiO2-chitosan (CS) - polyethylene glycol (PEG), as novel structures with potential application in bioremediation were investigated. The organic components - CS and PEG were used as structural modifiers for functionality improvement. The catabolic activity to n-hexadecane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa BN10 free and immobilized cells was estimated. The cell immobilization technique was employed to evaluate its efficiency on biodegradation and protective effect from high levels of hydrocarbons. The characteristics of obtained hybrid materials were investigated via X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) analyses. The obtained results revealed that the organic part in the synthesized hybrids is important for microstructure and defined properties creation. The rate of n-hexadecane mineralization by the bacterial strain was influenced by variation in cell densities applied in the immobilization procedures. Semi-continuous processes with multiple xenobiotic supplies were carried out. The synthesized by the sol-gel method hybrid matrices proved to be suitable carriers for realizing an effective biodegradation process of n-hexadecane by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BN10. Biodegradation of 50 kg/m3 of n-hexadecane was realized by free cells. Significantly greater quantity (150 kg/m3) was mineralized for 15 active cycles by entrapped bacterial cells. Biodegradation process with gradual increase of xenobiotic concentration reaching 30 kg/m3 for 120 h was also accomplished.
This article addresses a key legal debate that the Baltic NATO members ought to engage in: what constitutes an “armed attack” and what interpretation should be made of this concept in order to deter recent Russian hybrid warfare strategies. These questions are considered in connection with a more general issue regarding the law of self-defence: the question of what constitutes an armed attack in international law. This article will try to present a broad definition and context of Russian hybrid warfare and how it is challenging traditional jus ad bellum paradigms. Too few policy-makers have paid detailed attention to the new Russian “lawfare” in Ukraine, using specific military and non-military tactics in order to blur the lines between “armed attack” and mere political intervention. Meanwhile, legal scholars detach their analysis from actual policy-serving considerations and tend to acquiesce to some very restrictive theories of the use force in self-defence. For some countries, like the Baltic ones, facing strategic exposure – because of both threatening neighbours and low military capacities – the jus ad bellum paradigm should not be construed as another layer of obstacle.