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References 1. Cantas L., Shah S.Q.A., Cavaco L.M., Manaia C.M., Walsh F., Popowska M., Garelick H., Bürgmann H., Sørum H.: A brief multi-disciplinary review on antimicrobial resistance in medicine and its linkage to the global environmental microbiota. Front Microbiol 2013, 4, 1-14. 2. Chadwick P.R., Woodford N., Kaczmarski E.B., Graj S., Barrell R.A., Oppenheim B.A.: Glycopeptide-resistant enterococci isolated from uncooked meat. J Antimicrob Chemother 1996, 38, 908-909. 3. Chingwaru W., Mpuchane S.F., Gashe B.A.: Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium

. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2015;17. 18. Qiang H, Jiang M-S, Lin J-Y, He W-M. Influence of enterococci on human sperm membrane in vitro. Asian J Androl. 2007 Jan;9(1):77–81. 19. O’Toole G, Kaplan HB, Kolter R. Biofilm Formation as Microbial Development. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2000;54(1):49–79. 20. Paganelli FL, Willems RJ, Leavis HL. Optimizing future treatment of enterococcal infections: attacking the biofilm? Trends Microbiol. 2012 Jan;20(1):40–9. 21. Vanek NN, Simon SI, Jacques-Palaz K, Mariscalco MM, Dunny GM, Rakita RM. Enterococcus faecalis aggregation substance

Summary

This study assessed the potential efficiency of selected biologically active substances on the motility behavior of rabbit spermatozoa subjected to in vitro induced E. faecalis contamination. Semen samples were collected from 10 male rabbits and the presence of E. faecalis was confirmed using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry. For the in vitro experiments rabbit spermatozoa were resuspended in the presence of 0,3 McF E. faecalis and different concentrations of selected biomolecules (resveratrol - RES, quercetin - QUE, curcumin - CUR, epicatechin - EPI, isoquercitrin - IZO). Sperm motility was assessed using the computer-aided sperm analysis at 0h, 2h, 4h, 6h and 8h. The presence of E. faecalis significantly decreased the motility (P<0.001) when compared to the untreated Control starting at 2h and maintaining this negative impact throughout the entire in vitro culture. Meanwhile, the motility was significantly higher in the experimental samples subjected to E. faecalis together 5 μmol/L RES (P<0.05), 10 μmol/L QUE (P<0.05) as well as 1 μmol/L (P<0.01) and 10 μmol/L CUR (P<0.05) when compared to the Positive Control (4h). No biomolecule was able to maintain the motion comparable to the Negative Control, and none was effective against the rapid decline of sperm motility caused by the presence of E. faecalis during later stages of the in vitro experiment (6h and 8h). We may conclude that RES, QUE and CUR may provide a selective advantage to spermatozoa in the presence of E. faecalis, particularly during short-term rabbit semen handling.

I. In vitro activity of the essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and eugenol in peroxynitrite-induced oxidative processes. J Agric Food Chem. 2005; 53(12):4762-4765. doi:10.1021/jf050183e. 19. Komiyama EY, Lepesqueur LS, Yassuda CG, et al. Enterococcus Species in the Oral Cavity: Prevalence, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Susceptibility. PLoS One. 2016; 11(9):e0163001. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0163001. 20. Wang QQ, Zhang CF, Chu CH, Zhu XF. Prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the drug resistance of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from different types of poultry waste. The study material consisted of feather samples (duck, turkey, chicken), sludge and centrifuge sediment, originating from three poultry farms. The study was conducted in two stages; isolation and identification of Enterococcus bacteria from the waste and evaluation of their drug resistance using Kirby-Bauer method. Contamination of the poultry waste with Enterococcus isolates included E. faecium species (79 %) and E. faecalis (21 %). The most contaminated were sludge and sediment from the centrifuge as well as chicken feathers, irrespective of the place and time of sampling. Tested isolates showed multiple resistance and similar reaction to all antibiotics used in the study and E. faecalis strain was more resistant. Enterococcus isolates showed the highest resistance to streptogramins, carbapenems, fluoroquinones, aminoglycosides and penicillins, and the lowest for nitrofurantions and phenicols.

References ACKERMANN, H.W., KROPINSKI, A.M.: Curated list of prokaryote viruses with fully sequenced genomes. Res. Microbiol., 158, 2007, 555-566. BICKLE, T.A., KRUGER, D.H.: Biology of DNA restriction. Microbiol. Rev., 57, 1993, 434-450. BREDE, D.A., SNIPEN, L.G., USSERY, D.W., NEDERBRAGT, A.J., NES, I.F.: Complete genome sequence of the commensal Enterococcus faecalis 62, isolated from a healthy Norwegian infant. J. Bacteriol., 193, 2011, 2377-2378. DERESINSKI, S.: Bacteriophage Therapy: Exploiting Smaller Fleas. Clin. Infect. Dis., 48, 2009, 1096-1101. FARD, R

References [1] Baccouri, O. et al., Probiotic potential and safety evaluation of Enterococcus faecalis OB14 and OB15, isolated from traditional Tunisian Testouri cheese and Rigouta, using physiological and genomic analysis. Frontiers in Microbiology , 10. (2019) 881. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00881 . [2] Belicová, A., Mikulášová, M., Dušinský, R., Probiotic potential and safety properties of Lactobacillus plantarum from Slovak Bryndza cheese. BioMed Research International , 2. (2013). [3] Ben Said, L., Gaudreau, H., Dallaire, L., Tessier, M

, Donati G, Watt FM (2015): Innate sensing of microbial products promotes wound-induced skin cancer. Nature Communications, 6: 5932. doi: 10.1038/ncomms6932. Hwang IY, Lim SK, Ku HO, Park CK, Jung SC, Park YH, Nam HM (2011): Occurrence of virulence determinants in fecal Enterococcus faecalis isolated from pigs and chickens in Korea. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 21, 1352–1355. Kloos WE, Zimmerman RJ, Smith RF (1976): Preliminary studies on the characterization and distribution of Staphylococcus and Micrococcus species on animal skin. Applied and

., Roliński Z., Zań R., Krasucka D.: Activity of ß-lactam antibiotics against certain microorganisms which cause mastitis in cows. J Vet Res 2016, 60, 267–271. 5. Cameron M., Saab M., Heider L., McClure J.T., Rodrigues-Lecompte J.C., Sanchez J.: Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of environmental streptococci recovered from bovine milk samples in the Maritime province of Canada. Front Vet Sci 2016, 3, art. 79. Doi: 10.3389/fvets.2016.00079. 6. Cariolato D., Andrighetto C., Lombardi A.: Occurrence of virulence factors and antibiotic resistances in Enterococcus faecalis