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.Y., HALMI, M. I.E., RAHMAN, M.F.A., SHAMAAN, N.A., SYED, M.A.: Molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue in Serratia sp. strain DRY5 is catalyzed by a novel molybdenum-reducing enzyme. BioMed Res. Int., 2014, 2014, 8 p. SHUKOR, M.Y., RAHMAN, M.F., SHAMAAN, N.A., SYED, M.S.: Reduction of molybdate to molybdenum blue by Enterobacter sp. strain Dr.Y13. J. Basic Microbiol., 49, 2009, S43-S54. SIMS, R.P.A.: Formation of heteropoly blue by some reduction procedures used in the micro-determination of phosphorus. The Analyst, 86, 1961, 584-590. STONE, J., STETLER, L

., Kava-Cordeiro, V., Glienke, C.H. and Galli-Terasawa, L.V. 2014. Identification and characterization of endophytic bacteria from corn ( Zea mays L.) roots with biotechnological potential in agriculture. AMB Express , 4: 26. Taghavi, S., Van der Lelie, D., Hoffman, A., Zhang, Y-B., Walla, M.D., Vangronsveld, J., Newman, L. and Monchy, S. 2010. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. PLoS Genetics , 6(5): e1000943. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000943. Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A. and Kumar, S


Application of beneficial bacterial strain B125 (Enterobacter sp.) and strain PZ9 (Bacillus sp.) in lettuce transplants production significantly enhanced seed germination and plant biomass. The best effect was obtained when the mixture of B125 and PZ9 was used. Combined application of these bacteria significantly increased transplants biomass, which was about 45% higher than that in the control. However, after planting these transplants in organic field, generally, there were no differences in yield and nutrient content in plants treated and not treated with the bacteria, except for nitrogen and vitamin C. The lettuce grown from transplants treated with bacterial mixture B125 + PZ9 contained significantly higher nitrogen than plants from other treatments. Opposite to nitrogen, bacterial applications decreased the amount of vitamin C. The growth and organic lettuce composition was affected by planting time. The yield was higher in spring, but the concentration of nutrients in these plants was lower than that in plants harvested in autumn. Climatic and light conditions in the late season were the reasons for increased dry matter content, minerals, phenolic compounds, and vitamin C, as well as high concentration of nitrates.


The studies involved gilts 6 weeks pre-partum allocated into the control and experimental groups. The experimental group received vitamin C at the dose of 2.5g/100 kg b.w./day. Faeces for analyses were collected for 3- and 6- week period of vitamin C dietary inclusion. The faecal material underwent quantitative and qualitative bacteriological evaluation. The count of Enterobacteriaceae was evaluated. The qualitative examination of these bacteria was made using the micro-plate method API 20E. Feed supplemented with vitamin C contributed to a statistically significant decline of the total bacterial count of Enterobacteriaceae in faeces. The qualitative bacterial analyses showed the presence of E. coli, Providecia sp., Proteus sp., and Salmonella sp. in the control and experimental groups. Enterobacter sp. was recovered only in the control group, while Lactobacillus sp. in the experimental group. The dietary administration of vitamin C significantly decreased the number of the studied bacterial species, except Salmonella rods. No statistically significant differences in the number of most blood morphotic elements following the 6- week supply of vitamin C were found; only the granulocyte count significantly increased, while lymphocyte numbers declined. Ascorbic acid inhibited the growth of pathogenic intestinal flora and reduced the pathogenic and relatively pathogenic bacteria count in the gastrointestinal tract and notably contributed to enhanced growth of beneficial bacteria.


The northern area of Pakistan, Gilgit Baltistan (GB), has huge tourist potential due to its exotic mountain beauty. According to the GB Tourism Department, a large number of tourists (around 200651) visit GB every year from across the country. Due to a large influx of tourists in the area both positive and negative impacts have been felt especially on the environment and on the local communities. The environmental impacts of tourism were investigated in this research in two districts of GB. Three villages were selected from each of the districts of Hunza and Diamer as the basis of this research. This study was based on the perceptions and attitudes of the respondents. The total number of questionnaires completed was 340 filled from different respondent categories. Results showed that deforestation, loss of biodiversity, generation of solid waste, water, air and noise pollution, damage cultural and heritage sites and are the main environmental issues caused by tourism activities in the villages in these districts. About 42% of respondents said that deforestation and loss of biodiversity were high in the Diamer district while in Hunza 39% of respondents said that solid waste generation was high. Similarly, 21% respondents in Hunza and 14% respondents in Diamer agreed that water pollution is caused by tourism activities. Microbial analysis of water confirmed the presence of Salmonella typhi, E. coli and Enterobacter sp. There were positive impacts of tourism with results revealing that 87% of villagers and 98% of businessmen responded that tourism had provided them with jobs and business during the peak tourism season. Hotels and restaurants are the main source of jobs in GB mainly as porters and guides. According to the data collected dry fruits, medicinal herbs, gemstones and handicrafts provided considerable attractions for tourists. It is recommended that a combined effort be made by the local communities, tourism departments and other Govt. Agencies to ensure the cleanliness of tourist attractions.


This study aims to develop a biocontrol agent against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) in tomato. For this, a set of 23 bacterial endophytic isolates has been screened for their ability to inhibit in vitro the growth of FORL using the dual plate assay. Three isolates with the most sound antagonistic activity to FORL have been qualitatively screened for siderophore production, phosphates solubilization and indolic acetic acid (IAA) synthesis as growth promotion traits. Antagonistic values of the three candidates against FORL were respectively: 51.51 % (EB4B), 51.18 % (EB22K) and 41.40 % (EB2A). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates EB4B and EB22K were closely related to Enterobacter ludwigii EN-119, while the strain EB2A has been assigned to Leclercia adecarboxylata NBRC 102595. The promotion of tomato growth has been assessed in vitro using the strains EB2A, EB4B and EB22K in presence of the phytopathogen FORL. The treatments with the selected isolates increased significantly the root length and dry weight. Best results were observed in isolate EB4B in terms of growth promotion in the absence of FORL, improving 326.60 % of the root length and 142.70 % of plant dry weight if compared with untreated controls. In the presence of FORL, the strain EB4B improved both root length (180.81 %) and plant dry weight (202.15 %). These results encourage further characterization of the observed beneficial effect of Enterobacter sp. EB4B for a possible use as biofertilizer and biocontrol agent against FORL.

. Nova Biotechnol. Chim. 14: 62-68. Radzuan MN, Banat IM, Winterburn J (2017) Production and characterization of rhamnolipid using palm oil agricultural refinery waste. Bioresour. Technol. 225: 99-105. Rahman MF, Rusnam M, Gusmanizar N, Masdor NA, Lee CH, Shukor MS, Roslan MAH, Shukor MY (2016) Molybdate-reducing and SDS-degrading Enterobacter sp. Strain Neni-13. Nova Biotechnol. Chim. 15: 166-181. Saikia RR, Deka S, Deka M, Banat IM (2012) Isolation of biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS29 from oil-contaminated soil and evaluation of different nitrogen