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The aim of this work was to investigate the energy intensity of the fuel wood chips production on unused agricultural land. The unused agricultural land, overgrown with forest trees, also called white areas, is the result of the end of the traditional intensive management of agricultural land by the natural succession of forest stands and pioneers’ wood species on the borders of forest and non-forest land. These stands are advantageously localized due to previous method of the land utilization, accessible and therefore very interesting from the point of view of obtaining fuel dendromass. The logging and subsequent dendromass processing was carried out for the purpose of further land use as pasture land and also for the production of fuel wood chips and their subsequent sale to the end user. With the utilization of technology chain saw-forwarder-chipper, the energy intensity of each operation, expressed in terms of the amount of fuel consumed per unit of produced wood fuel, was determined. The share of energy consumed in the energy value of the harvested tree dendromass in the evaluated sites ranged from 0.43 to 0.62%, approximately 0.64 to 0.88% and the chipping 0.42 to 0.54%. The total amount of energy consumed after calculation the chipper transfers to an average distance of 180 km was within 1.46 to 2.11%. The average weight of the harvested trees caused the biggest impact on the energy intensity of the production process.
Suthirat Kittipongvises, Orathai Chavalparit and Chakkaphan Sutthirat
This paper is aimed to systematically assess greenhouse gases (GHGs) and energy intensity of the granite rock mining operations in Thailand and also identify a range of feasible options to minimize their GHG emissions. Mining factories A, B and C, located in the Eastern region of Thailand, were selected as research case studies. The results indicated that the 3-year average of GHGs emissions from factories A to C was 3387 718 kgCO2e per year with approximately 2.92 kgCO2e per ton of granite rock produced over 2012 to 2014. Of this, the carbon intensity of grid-electricity consumption for the crushed rock production was 1.84 kgCO2/kWh. Diesel fuel combustion for transport activities in the mining factories was the greatest contributor to GHGs emissions (68 %) compared to the purchased electricity and explosion process, with 31 % and 1 %, respectively. In-Pit Crushing and Conveying (IPCC) installation, haul truck payload optimization and management, and reduction in tire rolling resistance have shown potential to reduce carbon emissions accounted for 20 % to 70 %.
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Relevance of the study is associated with reduced energy intensity of the process heat demand by improving the systems and control algorithms of automatic energy management in buildings. This paper presents a system for power management of individual modules with interaction via the Ethernet, allowing measuring the qualitative and quantitative performance of network communication protocols of different levels of performance monitoring in real time. The difference of the developed intellectual automatic control system consisting of separate modules with interaction via the Ethernet, there is no separation devices for simple and intelligent - all the devices are intelligent, the controller is a separate module, and its functions are performed by the control unit.
Abdellah Zerroug, Larbi Refoufi and Egils Dzelzitis
This article analyzes trends of the total final energy consumption in sectors of building materials, residential, and transport industry in Algeria. The total final energy by sector and type of fuel is analyzed. The evolution of the total energy intensity and the impact of energy consumption on the environment are discussed. Consumption per capita in Algeria is 1,058.0 kg of oil equivalent per person, while in Morocco, the country with almost the same number of inhabitants it is 458 Kgoe and in Tunisia it is 843 Kgoe. The total emission of gases is equal to 46 million Tons of CO2, with an average of 3 TECO2 / TOE.
Peter Peciar, Marián Peciar, Roman Fekete and Juraj Úradníček
To assess the energy intensity of particulate materials mixing, it is necessary to know the state of stress in the particulate material in front of mixing elements. The theoretical background of this process results from the theory of the equilibrium limit of the particulate material, and this state may by described by Mohr’s circle theory and the Novosad model. Based on the above assumptions, it is possible to derive the pressure distribution along the blade height, but only for an infinitely long blade. A measuring system implemented on the homogenizer blade was constructed to examine the effects of the distribution of the mixed material on the mixing element along its length.
Róbert Brunner, Emil Pinčík, Michal Kučera, Ján Greguš, Pavel Vojtek and Zuzana Zábudlá
Evaluation of photoluminescence spectra of porous silicon (PS) samples prepared by electrochemical etching is presented. The samples were measured at temperatures 30, 70 and 150 K. Peak parameters (energy, intensity and width) were calculated. The PL spectrum was approximated by a set of Gaussian peaks. Their parameters were fixed using fitting a procedure in which the optimal number of peeks included into the model was estimated using the residuum of the approximation. The weak thermal dependence of the spectra indicates the strong influence of active defects.
Stanisław Bocheński, Anna Bocheńska-Skałecka and Tadeusz Kuczyński
A comprehensive design of a building along with the development of a surrounding land may counterbalance the tendency of housing estates comprising houses built on the basis of “ready-made projects” - which have no references to the existing urban tissue and which do not create a new one. In the first place, the energy intensity of buildings using the so-called passive methods should be lowered, and only then active systems should be applied, considering economic balance. The problem should be considered from two different perspectives i.e. for intensively and for less urbanised areas. The article results in the formulation of guidelines for energy-efficient modernization of contemporary buildings and their surroundings.