Saeed Ebrahimi, Nader Vahdatazad and Gholamhossein Liaghat
 V inson , J. R., Sandwich Structures. Appl. Mech. Rev ., 54 (2001), 201-214.
 B irmana , V., G. A., K ardomateasb . Review of Current Trends in Research and Applications of Sandwich Structures. Composites Part B: Eng., 142 (2018), 221-240.
 E brahimi , S., N. V ahdatazad . Multiobjective Optimization and Sensitivity Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Cylindrical Columns under Axial Crushing Loads. Thin Walled Struct ., 88 (2015), 90-104.
 V ahdatazad , N., S. E brahimi . EnergyAbsorption Characteristics of
Jian Chen, Xiongfei Li, Wei Li, Cong Li, Baoshan Xie, Shuowei Dai, Jian-Jun He and Yanjie Ren
Quasi-static uniaxial compressive tests of open-cell copper (Cu) foams (OCCF) were carried out on an in-situ bi-direction tension/compress testing machine (IBTC 2000). The effects of strain rate, porosity and pore size on the energy absorption of open-cell copper foams were investigated to reveal the energy absorption mechanism. The results show that three performance parameters of open-cell copper foams (OCCF), involving compressive strength, Young modulus and yield stress, increase simultaneously with an increase of strain rate and reduce with increasing porosity and pore size. Furthermore, the energy absorption capacity of OCCF increases with an increase of porosity and pore size. However, energy absorption efficiency increases with increasing porosity and decreasing pore size. The finite element simulation results show that the two-dimensional stochastic model can predict the energy absorption performance of the foam during the compressive process. The large permanent plastic deformation at the weak edge hole is the main factor that affects the energy absorption.
Mohd. Reyaz-Ur-Rahim, P. K. Bharti and Afaque Umer
 Alexander JM. An approximate analysis of the collapse of thin cylindrical shells under axial loading. Q J Mech Appl Math 1960; XIII:10-5.
 Pugsley SA, Macaulay M. The large-scale crumpling of thin cylindrical columns. Q J Appl Math 1960; XIII:1-9.
 Alavi N.A, Hamedani J. H, Comparative analysis of energyabsorption and deformations of thin-walled tubes with various section geometries, Thin-Wall Struct. 48 (2010) 946-954.
 Marzbanrad, Javad, Mehdi Mehdikhanlo, An energy
Andrews Boakye, Rafui King Raji, Pibo Ma and Honglian Cong
Publishing, pp. 213-
 Grima, J. N., Caruana-Gauci, R., Attard, D, Gatt, R. (2012). Three-dimensional cellular structures with negative Poisson’s ratio and negative compressibility properties. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Science, 468(2146), 3121-3138.
 Chang, Y., Ma, P., Jiang, G. (2017). Energyabsorption property of warp-knitted spacer fabrics with negative Possion’s ratio under low velocity impact. Composite Structures, 182, 471-477.
 Cabras, L., Brun, M. (2014). Auxetic two-dimensional lattices
In the paper the dynamic response of thin-walled, spot-welded prismatic frusta subjected to axial impact load is investigated. The parametric study into the influence of several parameters on the energy absorption capability, expressed by some crashworthiness indicators is performed, using Finite Element simulations. FE model is validated by experimental results of quasi-static and dynamic (impact) tests. Results of initial study concerning influence of spot welds are presented. Some conclusions are derived from the parametric study into the influence of frustum angle and wall thickness upon the energy absorption capability.
Si Chen, Xue-pei Zhang, Hong-xia Chen and Xiao-ping Gao
The present work has reported the compression properties of polyurethane-based warp-knitted spacer fabric composites (PWSF). In order to investigate the effect of structural parameters of fabric on the compression performance of composites, a series of warp-knitted spacer fabrics (WSF) with different structural parameters including spacer yarn inclination angle, thickness, fineness of spacer yarns, and outer layer structure have been involved. The produced composites have been characterized for compression properties. The energy-absorption performance during the compression process has been determined as a function of the efficiency and the compression stress obtained from compression tests. The results show that the composites based on spacer fabrics having smaller spacer yarns inclination angle, higher fabric thickness, finer spacer yarn, and larger mesh in outer layers perform better with respect to energy-absorption properties at lower stress level, whereas at higher stress level, the best energy-absorption abilities are obtained in case of spacer fabrics constructed of larger spacer yarn inclination angle, lower fabric thickness, coarser spacer yarn, and smaller mesh in surface layers.
Paweł Bogusz, Roman Gieleta, Marcin Konarzewski and Michał Stankiewicz
1. Alcan Composites (2016), Sandwich Technology, Data sheet, Herex C70 universal structural foam , C70DATASHEET.pdf www.alcanairex.com , Alcan Airex AG, Switzerland.
2. Ashby M. F. et al. (2000), Metal foams – a design guide , Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK.
3. Avalle M., Belingardi G., Montanini R. (2001), Characterization of polymeric structural foams under compressive impact loading by means of energy-absorption diagram, International Journal of Impact Engineering , 25(5), 455-472.
4. Bernard C.A., Bahlouli N
The infrared thermography measurements of porous building materials have become more frequent in recent years. Many accompanying techniques for the thermal field generation have been developed, including one based on laser radiation. This work presents a simple optimization technique for estimation of the laser beam absorption for selected porous building materials, namely clinker brick and cement mortar. The transient temperature measurements were performed with the use of infrared camera during laser-induced heating-up of the samples’ surfaces. As the results, the absorbed fractions of the incident laser beam together with its shape parameter are reported.
Rubberized concrete is made up of scrap tyre rubbers where the fine aggregate is partially replaced by it, as the waste rubber is being a threat to the environment. It is estimated that only 4% of the waste tyre is used in the application of civil engineering and also there is shortage of fine aggregates. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the preliminary concrete properties of M25 and M30 concretes. The fine aggregate is replaced by pre-treated crumb rubber with 10, 15 and 20 % of total weight. Various tests are conducted on the rubberized concrete specimens such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and slump test. The investigation is carried out to determine the impact load behavior of hybrid rubberized composite slabs. In addition 0%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% of replacement of rubber fibers for total weight of coarse aggregate is also made. The specimen of size 300 mm x 300 mm x 50 mm thickness is subjected to drop hammer test to find its performance against the impact loads. The number of blows for the first crack and complete failure of slab was found and the characteristics were studied.
Engineering, vol.25, pp.553-572.
Corran R.S.J., Shadbolt P.J. and Ruiz C. (1983): Impact loading of plates - an experimental investigation. - Int. J. Impact Eng., vol.1(1), pp.3-22.
Dean J., Dunleavy C.S., Brown P.M. and Clyne T.W. (2009): Energyabsorption during projectile perforation of thin steel plates and the kinetic energy of ejected fragments. - International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol.36, pp.1250-1258.
Gupta N.K., Iqbal M.A. and Sekhon G.S. (2006): Experimental and numerical studies on the behavior of thin