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Radiol Endod, 2005; 100:242-248. 8. Dincer AN, Er O, Canakci BC. Evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal retreatment with several NiTi systems. Int Endod J, 2015; 48:1194-1198. 9. Elmsallati EA, Wadachi R, Suda H. Extrusion of debris after use of rotary nickel-titanium files with different pitch: a pilot study. Aust Endod J, 2009; 35:65-69. 10. Friedman S, Stabholz A. Endodontic retreatment: case selection and technique -part 1: Criteria for case selection. J Endod, 1986; 12:28-33. 11. Friedman S, Stabholz A, Tamse A. Endodontic retreatment: case

References 1. Taintor J, Ingle J, Fahid A. Retreatment versus further treatment. Clin Prevent Dent, 1983;5;8-14. 2. Friedman S, Stabholz A. Endodontic retreatment: case selection and technique-part 1: Criteria for case selection. J Endod, 1986;12:28-33. 3. Caliscan M. Nonsurgical retreatment of teeth with periapical lesions previously managed by either endodontic or surgical intervention. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endo, 2005;100:242-248. 4. Stabholz A, Friedman S. Endodontic retreatment: case selection and technique - part 2: treatment planning


Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine the level of correlation between histopathologic results after surgery for chronic apical periodontitis and the radiographic and clinical diagnosis. The status of gold standard technique of histologic examination was evaluated in the diagnosis of apical radiolucency in necrotic teeth.

Methods: Out of 154 patients with incorrect root fillings and apical radiolucency included in an endodontic retreatment protocol, 87 patients (108 teeth) were scheduled for apical surgery at 3-6 months control recall. Clinical and radiographic exams were completed prior to surgery and compared to the histological results of apical biopsies. The collected data were statistically analyzed with the SPSS version 20.0 and the Chi-square test was used to determine the associations between clinical and histologic diagnosis. A value of p <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the number of cases diagnosed as granulomas or cysts during clinical and radiological evaluation compared to histologic evaluation of tissue samples, with 40.9% to 75.9% and 54.2% to 16.8% respectively (p<0.05).

Conclusions: The final diagnosis was obtained only after histologic examination of apical tissue samples, which means that the observations made based on radiologic investigations must be confirmed by biopsy.

endodontic retreatment: a review of literature. J Oral Implantol , 2013; 399-405. 7. Jay R. Beagle . The Immediate Placement of Endosseous Dental Implants in Fresh Extraction Sites. Dent Clin N Am , 2006; 50:375-389. 8. Lazzara RJ . Immediate implant placement into extraction sites: surgical and restorative advantages. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent , 1989; 9:332-343. 9. Lindeboom JAH, Tjiook Y, Kroon FH . Immediate placement of implants in periapical infected sites: A prospective randomized study in 50 patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod

, R U, Ramachandran R, Thomas V, Wood A. Insight into Oral Biofilm: Primary, Secondary and Residual Caries and Phyto-Challenged Solutions. Open Dent J. 2017 Jun 30;11:312-333. 11. Ercan E, Dalli M, Duülgergil CT, Yaman F. Effect of intracanal medication with calcium hydroxide and 1% chlorhexidine in endodontic retreatment cases with periapical lesions: an in vivo study. J Formos Med Assoc. 2007 Mar;106(3):217-24.

References 1. Zillich R, Dowson J. Root canal morphology of mandibular first and second premolars. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1973;36:738-744. 2. Vertucci FJ. Root canal morphology of mandibular premolars. J Am Dent Assoc, 1978;97:47-50. 3. Cleghorn M, Chrirtie H, Dong C. The root and root canal morphology of the human mandibular second premolar: a literature review. J Endod, 2007;33:1031-1037. 4. Hoen M, Pink E. Contemporary endodontic retreatments: an analysis based on clinical treatment findings. J Endod, 2002;28:834-836. 5. Tzanetakis GN, Lagoudakos TA

endodontic surgery: anatomical considerations and clinical techniques. Int Endod J 18, 8-34. 14. Danin J, Strӧmberg T, Forsgren H, Linder LE, Ramsköld LO (1996) Clinical management of nonhealing periradicular pathosis. Surgery versus endodontic retreatment. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 82, 213-217. 15. Abramovitz I, Better H, Shacham A, Shlomi B, Metzger Z (2002). Case selection for apical surgery: a retrospective evaluation of associated factors and rational. J Endod 28, 527-530. 16. Carr GB (1992) Microscopes in endodontics. J Calif Dent Assoc 20, 55

:// , Accessed in 2019 (Feb 1). 12. Moreira MS, Anuar ASN, Tedesco TK, Dos Santos M, Morimoto S. Endodontic treatment in single and multiple visits: an overview of systematic reviews. J Endod, 2017;43:864-870. 13. Siqueira JF Jr, Barnett F. Interappointment pain: mechanism, diagnosis and treatment. Endod Topics, 2004;7:93-109. 14. Gkampesi S, Mylona Z, Zarra T, Lambrianidis T. Assessment of apical extrusion of debris during endodontic retreatment with 3 rotary nickel-titanium retreatment systems and hand files. Balk J Dent Med, 2016;20:22-28. 15. Hou