L’uboš Pavlov, L’uboš Skurčák, Juraj Chovanec and Juraj Altus
This article is devoted to the analysis of the possible influence of impedance asymmetry on the efficiency of electricity transmission and distribution in the electricity system in Slovakia, at a voltage level of 110 kV - 400 kV, using synchronic phasor monitoring results. For simplicity of calculations, in practice, the impedance imbalance from mutual interfacial inductive capacitances bonds is neglected. In this way, the 3-phase network is interpreted as symmetrical in the calculations. In this case, it is possible to determine only some components of losses (ohmic losses, corona loss, leakages, etc). The influence of impedance asymmetry can be quantified by calculation using the results of the monitoring of the synchronous phasors of selected electricity system elements (OHL, transformer, choke) or by 3-phase modelling of real system elements. frequency to test the transformer for induced over voltage test, and its characteristics is analysed.
T. Huang, R. Pi, E. Bompard, F. Profumo, P. Cuccia, G. Fulli and M. Masera
Electricity is one of the crucial energies of modern society, but it is greatly threatened by various kinds of menaces, especially natural hazards. Although they rarely happen, their occurrence may hugely affect the operation of power system. In this paper, we firstly, according the impact on power systems, classify natural threats into two categories (natural disasters and extreme weather conditions) and several subcategories (geological, hydrological, meteorological and climatological). Then the changes in natural threats to power systems and their trends during recent decades are discussed, along with a review of events that pose natural threats to the power system. Finally, the georeferenced model based on the Italy transmission system for natural threats analysis is presented.
Akinyemi A. Ajibola, Muideen A. Isiaka, Ikenna T. Nnoli and Christiana A. Abimbola
The study examined the impact of electricity supply on economic diversification in Nigeria, using time series data from 1981 to 2016. The study employed descriptive analysis and Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) techniques. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test showed that the variables are integrated of different orders.
The result from the Bounds co-integration test to show the presence of a long-run relationship among the variables was inconclusive. The short run (ARDL) model, however, indicated a positive insignificant relationship between electricity supply and economic diversification in Nigeria. The findings of the study revealed that the electricity supply had not played a fundamental role in enhancing economic diversification in Nigeria.
The study, therefore, recommended that for Nigeria to drive economic diversification through electricity supply, the government should fix the electricity supply problem which can be achieved by short-term action to reduce technical faults through maintenance of the transmission and distribution infrastructure or long-term interventions to expand generating capacity.
József Fidlóczky, János Bagyura, Károly Nagy, Tamás Szitta, László Haraszthy and Péter Tóth
Bird conservation on electricity transmission lines has a 40-year history in Hungary. It started with the saker conservation program. The initial small-scale activities were considerably enlarged through the LIFE projects. In the first project, 301 nest boxes for sakers of a new type made of aluminium were installed on pylons of high-voltage transmission lines. In 201 3 nearly 70% of saker pairs nested in these new boxes. An estimated 1 00 000 different birds used to be killed annually on the transmission line pylons in Hungary. During the two LIFE projects about 1 4 300 pylons were made bird-safe using improved technology and materials. Nearly 800 new bird-safe crossarms of pylons are being installed in the second project, which is expected to completely eradicate the danger
Danitz, F., Rudnick, H., Zolezzi, J., & Watts, D. (2002). Use Based Allocation Methods for Payment of ElectricityTransmission Systems. Proceedings of Intern. Conf. on Power System Technology. Vol. 2 , pp. 907-911.
Zolezzi, H. M., & Rudnick, H. (2003). Consumers Coordination and Cooperation in Transmission Cost Allocation. Proceedings of Power Tech Conf., IEEE , Vol. 3 , Bologna.
Bialek, J. (Aug. 1997). Topological Generation and Load Distribution Factors for
4. Venikov, V.A., & Astahov, J.N. (1962). Economic intervals at a choice of power objects' optimum variants and their application at technical and economic calculations of electricitytransmissions. Journal of Power and Automatics , 3 , 12-19 (in Russian).
5. Block, V.M., Astahov, J.N., Larinsh, K.V., Guseva, S.A., & Bejers, I.V. (1976). Method of the cable cross-section choice by universal nomograms. Journal of Electricity , 8 , 24-27(in Russian).
6. Block, V.M. (1986). Electrical networks and systems . Moscow: High school
Luis Ramirez Camargo, Jane Wuth, Markus Biberacher and Wolfgang Dorner
The energy transition towards high shares of renewables and the continued urbanization process have a direct and strong impact on the shape and characteristics of the electricity transmission and distribution systems. At the continental and national scale, improved high voltage grids should allow the transmission and balance of electricity from hot-spots of variable renewable energy generation installations to demand centres. At the regional and municipal scale, the medium and low voltage grids should be capable of bringing sufficient electricity to users and allow the integration of distributed renewable generation installations. While data on the transmission systems is widely available, spatial and attribute data of the medium and mainly the low voltage grids are scarce. Additionally, while there are plenty of studies on the requirements of the grid to allow the energy transition, there is very little information on the necessary transformation of the grid due to changes generated by the expected urbanization process. This study relies on a data set that estimates the topology of the medium and low voltage grids of Bavaria (Germany) as well as data from the LUISA territorial modelling platform of the European Commission to calculate key figures of grid requirements depending on population and land use for the current case and the decades to come. Typologies of grid requirements are proposed based on a statistical analysis of population and land use data of each square kilometre of the federal state. These typologies are extrapolated to changes in the structure of settlements that are expected in the years 2030 and 2050. Results are presented using maps with expected absolute values of grid requirements and their temporal changes for each square kilometre of the project area. Grid requirements are expected to increase in cities and to be reduced in most of the rural areas. The largest changes are expected to take place in the suburbs of the major cities.
Highlights for public administration, management and planning:
• Medium and low voltage grid shapes and lengths are estimated for the entire federal state of Bavaria, Germany.
• On average, distribution grid length requirements per person are between 13 and 16 times larger in rural regions than in city centres.
• While city centres and suburbs expect an increase in grid requirements, the total grid length of Bavaria is expected to decrease in the near future.
• Suburbs of large cities are not only expected to change steadily but also to show the largest changes in grid length requirements until 2050.
universal nomograms", Journal of Electricity, no. 8, p 24-27, 1976. (in Russian)
V. M. Block, Electrical networks and systems. Moscow: High school, 1986. (in Russian)
V. A. Venikov and J. N. Astahov, "Economic intervals at a choice of power objects' optimum variants and their application at technical and economic calculations of electricitytransmissions" in Power and Automatics, no 3, 1962. (in Russian)
G. E. Pospelov and V. F. Svidersky, "Economic intervals of some electric network
no. 8), 59p. http://www.lse.ac.uk/economicHistory/pdf/FACTSPDF/2308Ramadams.pdf
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Marek Siranec, Alena Otcenasova and Peter Bracinik
2019-2028, internal unpublished SEPS company document, 2018.
 Z. Blahutová, “The phenomenon of unplanned flows”, Journal Slovak power engineering (Slovenská energetika), vol. 37, pp. 4-5.
 L. Pavlov, L. Skurcak, J. Chovanec, and J. Altus, “Impact of impedance unbalance on the e ciency of electricitytransmission distribution”, Journal of Electrical Engineering.
 L. Pavlov, L. Skurcak, J. Chovanec, and J. Altus, ] vol. 68 no. 6, pp. 492-495, 2017, DOI: 10, 1515/jee-2017-0086,, ISSN: 1335-3632.
 E. Dvorský, L. Raková, and P