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Trans - Pacific Economic Integration Processes

(2013). Preferential Trade Policies and Agreements. In: Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2013: Turning the Tide: Towards Inclusive Trade and Investment . Bangkok: UNESCAP. Urata, S. (2014). A Stages Approach to Regional Economic Integration in Asia Pacific: The RCEP, TPP, and FTAAP. In: New Directions in Asia/Pacific Economic Integration . China National Committee for Pacific Economic Cooperation, Honolulu: East-West Center/Ambassador Tang Guoqiang, Petri P.A. (eds.), p. 119-130. Yang, S.-C. (1994). Manufactured Exports of East Asian

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Process of the Economic Integration of China with Asean Countries. An Overview

, D.C. (2003). Getting Asia Wrong: The Reed for New Analytical Frameworks, International Security , vol. 27, No. 4, Spring. Kawai, M. (2004). Regional Economic Integration and Cooperation in East Asia , Impact and Coherence of OECD Country Policies on Asian Developing Economies, Policy Research Institute of the Japanese Ministry of Finance / OECD, Tokyo. Key Indicators for Asia and Pacific 2008 (2008). Asian Development Bank, Manila. Lu, F. (2003). Free Trade Area: Awakening

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The Impact of European Economic Integration on Migration in the European Union

Abstract

The recent enlargement of the EU (since 2004) and the United Kingdom's decision to leave the European Union have prompted a growing research interest in the political and academic environment because of the causes and consequences of migration between the CEE countries and those in the Western Europe. In this study, the effects of European economic integration on the number of EU-15 immigrants from the newly integrated EU countries were assessed by econometric techniques. According to panel data models, in the period 2000-2015, the number of migrants from the new member states of the EU has increased, in average, with more than 2200 people only due to their EU membership. This result reflects the positive impact of European economic integration on the number of emigrants from the CEE countries that chose the EU-15 states as destination countries. Moreover, according to some ridge Bayesian regressions, during the period 2004-2015, the EU-15 immigrants coming from the EU-13 states did not negatively affect the economic growth of the EU-15 countries.

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Optimal Spatial Allocation of Labour Force and Employment Protection Legislation (EPL)

integration capabilities ( Arpaia et al., 2018 ). R.A. Mundell ( Mundell, 1961 ) already stated the importance of labour mobility within an OCA in order to cushion asymmetric shock. A multi-level and rich literature has already dealt with this topic and a considerable part of it has focused on the role of labour mobility inside an OCA. Meanwhile, J. Pelkmans ( Pelkmans, 2006 ), as well as R.E. Baldwin and C. Wyplosz (Baldwin and Wyplosz, 2015a), stressed that in areas of economic integration, if there is free mobility of workers, labour markets clear across countries

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Measurement of Export Market Concentration for the Largest European Economic Integrations

Partner Concentration since 1980: Trends in Dependency and Globalisation”, in proceedings of the TASA 2010 Conference: Social Causes, Private Lives, The Australian Sociological Association, Hawthorn. 4. Balassa, B. (1961), The Theory of Economic Integration, Allew and Unwin, London. 5. Bebczuk, R. N., Berrettoni, N. D. (2006), “Explaining Export Diversification: An Empirical Analysis”, CAF Research Program on Development Issues. 6. Beine, M., Coulombe, S. (2006), “Economic Integration and the Diversification of Regional Exports: Evidence from the

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Is Economic Integration a Historical Shock to City-size Distribution?

Abstract

Based on the assumption that the economic integration process contributes, via market reforms, to the dynamics of the space distribution in candidate countries, this study examines (i) whether agglomeration forces or dispersion forces are dominant; (ii) whether EU-integration causes a structural break to the space distribution over time; (iii) whether EU-integration makes the city-size distribution more even or uneven in eight eastern European Union members (EU–8). To carry out the analysis, the Ziwot-Andrew and Cusum Square tests are used to detect structural breaks; the ARDL Bound test is used to reveal the interaction between long-run and short-run equilibrium; and the Granger test is used to determine the direction of the causality among the variables. The main results are: the integration with the EU (i) caused a structural break to the city-size distribution, (ii) made the city-size distribution more uneven and (iii) stimulated the agglomerating forces over the spreading forces in the EU–8.

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Of Iron or Wax? The Effect of Economic Integration on the Reliability of Military Alliances

Abstract

In this paper we analyze what determines if a military alliance represents a credible commitment. More precisely, we verify if economic integration of military allies increases the deterrent capability of an alliance, and its effectiveness in the case of third-party aggression. We propose that growing intra-alliance trade creates audience costs and sunk costs for political leaders who venture to violate conditions of an alliance treaty. Therefore, intensive trade can be regarded as a signal of allies’ determination to aid one another in the case of third party aggression, and a deterrent of such aggression. Regression analysis of bilateral fixed-term mutual defense agreements concluded between 1945 and 2003 reveals that large trade volumes among military allies indeed reduce the likelihood that their political leaders will breach alliance commitments. Intra-alliance trade also displays a number of interesting interaction effects with the other common predictors of military alliance reliability such as shared allies’ interests and values, symmetry of their military capabilities, their geographic location and domestic political institutions.

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Selected Measures of Welfare in the Contemporary World Economy and the Implementation of the Sustainable Development Strategy in the European Union

Selected Measures of Welfare in the Contemporary World Economy and the Implementation of the Sustainable Development Strategy in the European Union

The principle for an effective management of the national economy is to create long-term development strategy. Taking determined decisions increase the chance of future growth. A necessary condition for an effective change, however, is basing them on sound and well-chosen premises. It is also essential, to continuously monitor progress and adjust actions if necessary. For this purpose, appropriate measures are required. The progressive process of environmental degradation, marginalization of national and ethnic groups, as well as the prospect of running out of energy resources, attracted greater attention to sustainable development. Among the main objectives of the sustainable development strategy in the EU, beside economic welfare, isthe protection of the environment, as well as equity and social cohesion. These objectives are convergent with emerging measures of welfare, which in contrast to GDP also include other elements that determine the real welfare of people affected.

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An Overview of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations of the Republic of Belarus with the EU and Lithuania

Abstract

Foreign trade fosters not only companies but national economies to maximize their gains for the benefit of a better living standard. In developing countries, such as Belarus, the volume of foreign trade depends on the path of liberalization and integration into the trade with the EU. This paper analyzes foreign trade and economic relations between the EU, Lithuania and Belarus.

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Common Cycles and Baltic-Nordic Economic Integration

Abstract

For centuries, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania have enjoyed historic and economic ties with their Nordic neighbors in the Baltic Sea region. While the period since 1991 has been one of increased integration with the European Union, trade linkages with Finland and Sweden are particularly strong for Estonia and Latvia, respectively. This study addresses these connections by applying time-series econometric techniques, with the goal of highlighting where regional connections are strongest. Strong Nordic-Baltic linkages, while providing evidence that historical factors are still important, might also suggest that integration with the rest of the EU is relatively weak. Using quarterly data from 1994 to 2014 for Baltic, Nordic, and other partner countries, business cycles are modeled for output, consumption, and investment. Common regional cycles are also extracted via Principal Components Analysis for the three Baltic countries and for the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Cross-correlation functions are then generated for various cycle pairs to assess whether any are “synchronized.” One key finding is that the Nordic region has two possible consumption cycles that behave in very different ways, suggesting that this region does not behave as a coherent whole. Norway and Denmark drive one cycle, while Sweden and Finland drive the other. Another key result is that each Baltic country behaves differently from one another. While regional differences are quite large - making it harder to describe this as a single “region” at all - Estonia does show significant connections to Finland, its historic and linguistic neighbor.

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