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Taxonomic investigations of cyanobacterial and algal flora from the Southern Altai, East Kazakhstan

The study presents results of pilot investigations (2005-2007) of micro-vegetation biodiversity in marginally explored mountain and forest-steppe areas of southern Altai, East Kazakhstan. On the basis of morphological phenotypes and ecological demands a total of 351 taxa of cyanobacteria and algae were identified in the principal biotopes (rivers and streams, backwaters, irrigation channels, lakes, high-tundra periglacial and barren land settings, snow fields, and pedogenic /soil cover/environments) of the territorial topographic gradient of ca. 400-3900 m a.s.l. Microbiological records display a remarkable taxonomic variability, including several previously undescribed endemic species of algae adapted to locally specific geoenvironmental conditions. The present results show a major potential for future systematic phycological studies integrated in the complex nature monitoring and management strategy in protected areas of the Altai. The results also demonstrate a limited impact of modern human activity on the quality of local water sources with only minor present ecological risks in balance with the traditional lifestyles of pastoralist communities.

-historical occupation of these lands by prehistoric and early historical nomadic ethnics. This paper examines the etymology of the principal geographical entities – the specific landscape forms – of the present North and East Kazakhstan – the historical area with a poetical name Sary-Arka/Saryarka. This term is known since the ancient times, meaning in the old Turkish language Yellowing Ridge ( Margulan et al. 1966 ). Yet, its linguistic roots may go far back into the prehistoric (Bronze Age) Mesopotamia and the Sumerian civilization ( Postgate 1993 ). According to present

Types of Deposits of Minerals of Precious Stones . EKSTU, Ust-Kamenogorsk, 92 pp. [in Russian]. Chernenko, Z.I., 2011. Crystallography and Mineralogy . EKSTU Press, Ust-Kamenogorsk, 45 pp. [in Russian]. Chernenko, Z.I., 2015. Analysis of the perspective marble and marmorized limestone deposits as facing and ornamental stones in East Kazakhstan, Vestnik of the EKSTU (Earth Sciences) 3, 15–17 [in Russian]. Chernenko, Z.I. & Chlachula, J., 2017. Precious and decorative non-metallic minerals from East Kazakhstan: geological deposits and present utilisation

. N., Vinogradov B. S. (eds.): Fauna of USSR. Volume 2. The Desert Zone M.-L .: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, pp. 308-311. Borutzky, E. V.1954: New species of genus Hemilepistus (Isopoda terrestria) from the East Kazakhstan [In Russian]. Zool. Journal 33: 477-479. Borutzky, E. V. 1955: New species of Ligidium (Isopoda terrestria) from Middle Asia [in Russian]. Byulleten moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispŷtateleĭ Prirodŷ. Biologia 60(1): 59-61. Borutzky, E. V. 1958: Soil woodlice of the genus Hemilepistus (biology and systematics) [Russian with

markers and SNP based haplotype analysis. PLoS ONE , 12 (2). Contreras-Soto, R. I., Mora, F., Lazzari, F., de Oliveira, M. A. R., Scapim, C. A., Schuster, I. (2017). Genome-wide association mapping for flowering and maturity in tropical soybean: Implications for breeding strategies. Breeding Sci., 67 (5), 435–449. Didorenko, S. V., Sprygailova, Y. N., Kudaibergonov, M. S., Abugalieva, A. I. (2015). Selection of soybean in East Kazakhstan. Science World , 1 , 83–88. Do, T. D., Vuong, T. D., Dunn, D., Clubb, M., Valliyodan, B., Patil, G., Chen, P., Xu, D., Nhuyyen

, Sartbayev ZhT (2014): Study of saproxylic beetles of some tree species in the tugai forests of the Ili River. Researches and results of Kazakh National Agrarian University, 2, 147–151. Kolov SV, Temreshev II (2012): The Toraygyr ridge beetle fauna (Insecta, Coleoptera) in South-East Kazakhstan. Euroasian Entomological Journal, 11, 337–342. (in Russian) Kostin IA (1973): The dendrophagous beetles of Kazakhstan (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Ipidae). Nauka, Alma-Ata. (in Russian) Kostin IA (2007): The dendrophagous beetles of desert zone of Kazakhstan (Buprestidae

International 283: 36–45, DOI 10.1016/j.quaint.2012.05.047. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2012.05.047 [15] Chen F, Yuan YJ, Wei WS, Wang LL, Yu SL, Zhang RB, Fan ZA, Shang HM, Zhang TW and Li Y, 2012. Tree ring density-based summer temperature reconstruction for Zajsan Lake area, East Kazakhstan. International Journal of Climatology 32(7): 1089–1097, DOI 10.1002/joc.2327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.2327 [16] Chen F, Yuan YJ, Wei WS, Yu SL, Li Y, Zhang RB, Zhang TW and Shang HM, 2010. Chronology development and climate response analysis of Schrenk spruce (Picea

, Shang HM, Zhang TW and Li Y, 2012. Tree ring density-based summer temperature reconstruction for Zajsan Lake area, East Kazakhstan. International Journal of Climatology 32: 1089–1097, 10.1002/joc.2327 . Chen F Yuan YJ Wei WS Wang L Yu SL Zhang RB Fan ZA Shang HM Zhang TW Li Y 2012 Tree ring density-based summer temperature reconstruction for Zajsan Lake area, East Kazakhstan International Journal of Climatology 32 1089 1097 10.1002/joc.2327 Chen F, He Q, Bakytbek E, Yu SL and Zhang RB, 2017a. Reconstruction of a long streamflow record using tree rings in the upper

reconstruction for Zajsan Lake area, East Kazakhstan. International Journal of Climatology 32: 1089–1097, DOI 10.1002/joc.2327 Chen F Yuan YJ Wei WS Wang L Yu SL Zhang RB Fan ZA Shang HM Zhang TW Li Y 2012a Tree ring density-based summer temperature reconstruction for Zajsan Lake area, East Kazakhstan International Journal of Climatology 32 1089 – 1097 10.1002/joc.2327 Chen F, Yuan YJ and Yu SL, 2017. Tree-ring indicators of rainfall and streamflow for the ili-balkhash basin, central asia since ce 1560. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 482 48–56, DOI 10

://www.forbes.com/2008/08/05/ solzhenitsyn-forbes-interview-oped-cx_pm_0804russia.html, visited on 2014.06.14. 132 133 The writer outspokenly asserts that “all of northern and northeastern Kazakh- stan is actually part of southern Siberia “, where Russians “are being repressed in their national, cultural, business and daily life” 16. Geopolitically, the anne- xation of North and North-East Kazakhstan would provide Russia with quite a few advantages, primarily related to the opportunity to exert the bigger inf- luence on China. This part of Kazakhstan is crossed by the trade and