Changes in the Energy Consumption in EU-27 Countries
The complete decomposition method is applied to changes in energy consumption in the countries of EU-27. This method decomposes the changes in energy use into three different effects: a change in energy consumption due to an increase of economic activity (the activity effect), a change in energy consumption due to a relative increase of significance of a country in the group (the structure effect) and a change in energy consumption due to a change of energy efficiency measured as energy intensity (the intensity effect). The results confirm that there is a difference in development of these effects between the old (EU-15) and the new member countries. The results show that the activity effect is the most significant effect in old member countries (EU-15), and is on average 1.13 times higher than in new member countries. The intensity effect is the main diversifying factor between the two groups and the most significant effect for the new member countries. The intensity effect is almost universally negative in all countries, and compensates for the other effects. Because of the importance of the effect, energy intensity convergence is examined. It is found that even by the "rough" distinction between the new and the old member countries, the convergence in energy intensity in new member countries can be found (in the old member countries there is no energy intensity convergence).
We analyze the influence of newly constructed globalization measures on regional growth for the EU-27 countries between 2001 and 2006. The spatial Chow-Lin procedure, a method constructed by the authors, was used to construct, on a NUTS-2 level, complete regional data for exports, imports and FDI inward stocks, which serve as indicators for the influence of globalization, integration and technology transfers on European regions. The results suggest that most regions have significantly benefited from globalization measured by increasing trade openness and FDI. In a non-linear growth convergence model, the growth elasticities for globalization and technology transfers decrease with increasing GDP per capita. Furthermore, the estimated elasticity for FDI decreases when the model includes a higher human capital premium for CEE countries and a small significant growth enhancing effect accrues from the structural funds expenditures in the EU.
The aim of our study is to compare Visegrad countries and the other EU member states regarding sustainable development, based on the system of Sustainable Development Indicators of the European Union. We provide a brief overview of almost two decades of elaborating the Sustainable Development Strategy of the Community, review the structure and the main elements of the strategic document, and – using the method of cluster analyses – we group the member states comparing them on the basis of specific headline indicators. Our goal was not a deep investigation, but a compact, thought-provoking analysis; this is the reason why we concentrated on the main indicators. As a result of the analysis, our hypothesis seems to be confirmed: the EU-15 countries and the rest of the member states belong to different clusters, which means that there are significant inequalities, especially from the economic and social aspects of sustainability.
European Commission, 2009: Ageing Report: Economic and budgetary projections for the EU-27 Member States (2008-2060), Statistical appendix on Poland, 2009 .
Panek, J. editor , 2007: Statystyka społeczna (Social Statistics - in Polish), Warszawa: PWE, p. 212.
Skrzypczak, Z . editor, 2011: Ochrona zdrowia na świecie (Health Protection around the World - in Polish), Warszawa: LEX a Wolters Kluwer Business, p. 25.
Sojka, E., 2011: Analiza porównawcza struktur i procesów ludnościowych w wybranych
Manuel Agüeros, Pedro Casares-Hontañón, Pablo Coto-Millán and Miguel Ángel Pesquera
This paper analyses the determinants of knowledge in the European Union of the 27, through estimates of transcendental logarithmic production functions (translog) in different scenarios. For this, a data panel for the period 2003-2010 has been elaborated, selecting the production stochastic frontier as the most reliable model to estimate technical efficiency for European innovation. The empirical result is that technological capital, human capital and relational capital have a positive and significant influence on the generation of knowledge. Also, from the observation of results we can assure that the size (in terms of population) of a country within the EU-27 does not positively influence the technical efficiency of knowledge production.
This is an empirical study about the relationship between the determinants of knowledge and the technical efficiency of the generation of knowledge, and such a study does not exist in literature for the EU-27 in the period analysed.
Convergence analysis of household expenditures using the absolute β-convergence method
Background: The paper examines the convergence of household expenditures, in terms of a possible usage of the standardized, rather than consumer-tailored marketing, mainly on a regional level. Objectives: The main goal of this research is to study the existence of consumption expenditure convergence in the EU-27 countries, in the period between 2000 and 2007. Methods/Approach: The analysis used the absolute β-convergence method, in order to investigate the existence of a negative correlation between the growth over time in the overall consumption expenditure in EU member-countries for each individual product and service category and the initial expenditure level. Results: According to the obtained results, in the period between 2000 and 2007, the EU-27 countries reached a high level of consumer expenditure convergence, which provides a basis for developing a regional concept of the standardized international marketing for these countries' markets. Conclusions: The results provide an empirical contribution to claims on consumer convergence in the countries included into economic integrations. Also, the obtained results can be used to create a basis for defining and applying the regional marketing concept for companies focusing on the EU-27 countries' market.
Cosmin Tileaga, Oana Nitu and Claudiu Valentin Nitu
Challenges generated by the global economic crisis, terrorism, epidemics, wich therefore directly affected global tourism industry, raised the global question to approach the tourism in a new vision, more complex. Thus, WTO and the World Travel & Tourism Council considered that this will be important condition for the reception destinations and local communities development. The new tourism ventures to include a new dimension of travel and tourism, as a mature response to a world more complicated. Global awareness of the importance of tourism has triggered a new vision on the opportunities offered by global tourism. T
This article provides information on the latest statistics on tourism in the European Union (EU). The tourism is an important sector due to its economic potential, employment of labor and its social and environmental implications. Tourism statistics are used to monitor not only EU policies in tourism but also regional policy and sustainable development policy. The role of tourism, for both business and citizens, has grown considerably in recent decades. According to the estimates of DG Enterprise and Industry of the European Commission, tourism accounts for over 5% of the EU-27 GDP. Tourist accommodation sector provides 2.3 million jobs in the EU-27 and the total number of jobs in the entire tourism sector in the EU-27 is estimated to be between 12 and 14 million people (according to preliminary estimates of tourism satellite accounts).
On the international scene, Europe expresses its views and acts concerted at an economic and political level, from trade and trade agreements to citizens’ safety and security as priority areas.
Member States’ security cooperation has become routine. But the EU-27 is still the main promoter of European citizens’ food safety and security through sustained, transparent and sustainable deners, in order to combat climate change, limiting the use of bioresources conservation of genetic resource biodiversity.
One of the strongest enemies of biodiversity is “poverty” and protection against it necessarily implies improving the well-being of humanity and fighting against underdevelopment.
Energy research is one of the fields of the National Priorities of Oriented Research, Experimental Development and Innovations. The Czech Republic is facing rather ambitious targets in the utilization of renewable energy resources, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and improvement of the overall energetic efficiency of the national economy. The fulfilling of these goals will require an intensive R&D in a broad spectrum of disciplines and technology fields. The present article evaluates the extent and the structure of the support of the energy research in the Czech Republic and brings comparisons with foreign countries both in expenditure and results in various research fields. The Czech Republic spends relatively more public resources in the nuclear technology research. It is accompanied by higher publication activities. It is in a stark contrast with significantly lower patenting activities in this field, except of the branch of non-fossil fuel production, in comparison with both the World and EU-27 countries.