V. Manolov, B. Atanasova, V. Vasilev, K. Tzatchev and M. Velizarova
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An analytical validation of a screening ELISA for detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) in honey was conducted according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and Guidelines for the Validation of Screening Methods for Residues of Veterinary Medicines. The analyte was extracted from honey with a water and ethyl acetate mixture, and CAP concentrations were measured photometrically at 450 nm. The recovery rate of the analyte from spiked samples was 79%. The cut-off level of CAP in honey as the minimum recovery (0.17 units) was established. Detection capability (CCβ) was fixed at 0.25 μg kg−1. No relevant interferences between matrix effects and structurally related substances including florfenicol and thiamphenicol were observed. The ELISA method should be useful for determination of CAP residues in honey monitoring.
F. Jing, J. Cui, R. Liu, L. Liu, P. Jiang and Z. Wang
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Stefka M. Delimitreva, Ralitsa S. Zhivkova, Irina V. Chakarova, Valentina P. Hadzhinesheva, Vladislav V. Lazarov and Dimitrina K. Dimitrova-Dikanarova
The reaction of anti-sperm antibody-positive sera from infertile women with fractionated mouse ovarian antigens was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antigens were obtained by extraction for nuclear matrix and intermediate filaments (NM-IF) producing three protein fractions – soluble, cytoskeletal and NM-IF. The results showed that sera from some infertile patients, but not control sera, react with either the soluble fraction or the NM-IF fraction. The reaction with soluble proteins was most likely directed against surface antigens, possibly aggravating the fertility problems, while the anti-NM-IF antibodies could indicate release of insoluble intracellular components by tissue damage of unknown origin.
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Araj GF, Lulu AR, Khateeb MI, Haj M. Specific IgE response in
Jaruratt Prownebon, Phitaya Charupoonphol, Pat Saksirisampant, Thitithep Limvorapitak, Usanee Seepongpun and Wilai Saksirisampant
Background: Data regarding intestinal parasitic infections in preschool-aged children (less than 6 years old) living in an orphanage and remote mountainous areas are very limited.
Objectives: We surveyed infections in orphans and hill-tribe children.
Materials and Methods: They were studied in 2008 by stool examination (simple smear and concentration), Scotch-tape and culture (Boeck and Drbohlav’s Lock-Egg-Serum medium) techniques. The Giardia coproantigen ELISA was also performed. The risk correlation between unusual stool types and giardiasis by univariate analysis was tested.
Results: The overall infection rates in 137 orphans and in 145 hill-tribe children were 58.4% and 77.9%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis had the highest prevalence in orphans (with microscopy 28.5%, with copro-antigen ELISA 31.4%). Other pathogens included Blastocystis hominis (23.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (9.5%), and hookworm (0.7%), whereas the nonpathogens were Trichomonas hominis (19.0%), Entamoeba coli (11.7%), and Endolimax nana (2.2%). Ascaris lumbricoides had the highest prevalence (62.1%) in hill-tribe children, while Giardia intestinalis showed 7.6% with microscopy and 9.0% by ELISA. The other pathogens were E. vermicularis (25.5%), Trichuris trichiura (10.3%), B. hominis (2.8%), hookworm (1.4%), Sarcocystis hominis (1.4%) and E. histolytica (0.7%), whereas the nonpathogenic organisms were E. coli (19.3%), and E. nana (0.7%). Giardiasis stools from orphans had significantly greater cyst density than those from the hill-tribe children. The coproantigen ELISA for giardiasis demonstrated 91.4% specificity, 72.0% sensitivity, 64.3% positive predictive value, and 93.8% negative predictive value, respectively. By univariate analysis, a loose (mushy) stool type was 2.43 times likely to have Giardia cysts.
Conclusion: In large-scale epidemiological studies, a Giardia ELISA might be a useful aid for diagnosis, because conventional microscopy is time-consuming and relies on the expertise of the microscopist.