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How to stop the snowball growth? A way for sustaining public debt over generations

Abstract

Why public debts are growing so fast in most developing countries, like a dangerous snowball which is growing and growing and no one can stop it? It is only a negative relation between high debt and real growth of economy? How can we definitively remove the Ricardian anxiety which called debt a “terrible scourge”? These are only few questions asked in the last century in relation with debt “overhang” not only by scholars, but by governments as well. This paper aims to answer to other questions like: Why debt’s rate grows faster than GDP? Why governments borrow? For current spending or for public investments? Who should benefits current loans? Who should pay for them and when? How should be the taxation along the economic cycle: neutral or countercyclical? Need we a model to sustain the public debt over generations, or it is good enough to maintain a good ration between real GDP growth and debt and that’s it?

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Stock-Flow Adjustment – Only a Residual Value? Evidence from European Union Countries

Abstract

The aim of the article is to investigate the fiscal determinants of stock-flow adjustment (SFA). Previous literature suggests that SFA may be used strategically to reduce budget deficit and public debt. As such, SFA impairs fiscal transparency and may endanger fiscal sustainability. Therefore, special attention should be paid by economists and policymakers. The study pertains to the European Union countries in the years 2005-2016. The empirical analysis supports the hypothesis that SFA is inversely related to public debt, whereas the inverse relationship between budget balance and SFA is not confirmed. The article contains additional analyses for selected components of SFA as well as narrower time and space coverage.

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Is Real Depreciation and More Government Spending Expansionary? The Case of Montenegro

Abstract

Employing an extended IS-MP-AS model to study the effects of the exchange rate, fiscal policy and other related variables in Montenegro, the paper finds that real depreciation of the Euro, a lower government spending-to-GDP ratio, a lower real lending rate in the Euro area, a lower lagged real oil price, a higher lagged real GDP in Germany, and a lower expected inflation rate would promote economic growth.

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Corporate Tax in European Union and the Theory of Corporate Finance

Abstract

One of the main objectives to be accomplished by the European Union law is to eliminate barriers to the functioning of domestic market and in particular improve the competitiveness of enterprises. After several years of efforts, the European Commission approved a proposal for the directive on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base which is to remove obstacles to the functioning of internal market and increase tax harmonization. The article is aimed at presenting the essence of CCCTB in the theory of corporate finance and its importance for enterprises, based on the survey of Polish and EU companies. The paper addresses issues relating to tax in corporate finance. Canons of taxation will be discussed and special emphasis will be placed on principles behind formulating fiscal law provisions (including the EU law). Furthermore, the article presents the results of surveys into the importance of taxation cannons for Polish and EU companies.

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Corporate Income Tax Rates in the EU Member States: Why Lower Means Better

Abstract

Governments of EU Member States have been reducing statutory corporate income tax rates (“CIT”) for several years. What encourages them to take part in tax competition? The article discusses several issues which are in favor of lower CIT rates. They are selected based on their relevance. The study is performed with use of data available from applicable statistical bodies/literature and is based on literature review (especially in cases where required data is not available). It seems that the commonly raised issue of rivalry for capital in the globalizing world economy with highly mobile capital could be only one of a number of reasons for CIT rate depression. Tax competition is fueled by the various sizes of the economies of EU countries as well. The following important rationale may include the aspiration of governments to curb the local shadow economy. There are also some issues of a more theoretical nature that explain decreasing CIT rates. They include: (i) the necessity to accommodate CIT rate levels from the perspective of double taxation of dividends, (ii) the requirement to consider political responsibility of CI or (iii) the need to manage a deadweight loss. As a result of these challenges EU Member States often broaden the legal CIT base to maintain government revenues.

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Why the EU-15 Maintains Higher CIT Rates than the New Member States?

Abstract

The European Union is not a homogenous area. This lack of homogeneity extends to taxes, which vary across jurisdictions. On average, Western Europe imposes significantly higher taxes on capital than New Member States, which joined the Community in 2004 and 2007. Often this fact is simply taken for granted. However, there are several arguments that can explain this variance. Although several of these arguments are well known and have been researched, they have not been assessed in combination, or used in a comparative analysis of corporate income tax (CIT) rates between EU member states. Because of interest in harmonizing CIT throughout the EU, the roots of divergent CIT is of particular and timely value. Therefore, this article we attempts to demonstrate the differences in CIT rates in the EU-15 and New Member States. In so doing the general characteristics of these country grouping is identified, and then discussed in the context of the taxation theory.

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Demand – Supply – Taxation in Times of Crisis

Abstract

The confrontation of the two doctrines, the Keynesianism and the Supply-side economics highlight that the Laffer perspective is the way to achieve solid economic growth on the long way and aims the core of an “exit from crisis” policy. Therefore, this article aims to analyze the hypothesis that a high level of taxation and public spending deters productive behavior and reduces economic growth during recessions. In other words, an easy taxation and low unproductive public spending are desirable for both, the enterprising investor and the consumer. Using the example of Romanian fiscal policy, on one side, we validated within a Vector Error Correction framework that an increase in government revenues harms consumption, investment and the level of employment, in conjunction with a procyclical behavior of fiscal authorities. On the other side, our results showed some positive effects of an increased government expenditures on consumption and employment, which can be explained by the accelerate deterioration of primary balance deficit and the Central Bank’s low interest rate. Moreover, even though the initial positive response of investment to a government spending shock is positive, this is ephemeral and nonsignificant. Our findings highlight that, in order to reach growth on the long-run in times of crisis, the Romanian economy should adopt the fiscal policy and measures suggested by the Supply-side Economics.

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Poland’s national and EU agricultural budget after 2015. Reduction in expenditures and directions of change

Abstract

The aim of the article was to present changes which took place in the financing of the agricultural sector in Poland after 2015, i.e. from the moment when a new economic option started to emerge in the national economic policy. A transition from the pro-liberal to the pro-social option is noticeable, which is reflected in the restrictions on expenditures in the national agricultural budget. Similar trends can be observed in the expenditures from the European funds budget, which are also increasingly lower. Symptoms of the renationalisation of the agricultural budget can also be observed, consisting in an initial increase in national expenditures and a relative decrease in the expenditures from the European funds budget, but to a different extent in the years under study. The article analyses the level, then the share of expenditures on the agricultural sector in the budget altogether and in GDP, taking into consideration both the expenditures on the Agricultural Social Insurance Fund (ASIF) and funds from the EU budget. Next, it concentrates more closely on relations in the financing of domestic agriculture from national and EU funds, and finally, points to the social issues related to the agricultural sector through the prism of expenditures on ASIF.

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Drivers of Greek and Turkish Defense Spending

Abstract

This paper evaluates the factors responsible for maintaining substantial military expenditures in Greece and Turkey. The presented research encompasses theoretical and empirical aspects. First, defense spending by both countries was analyzed based on statistical data from international sources. Next, the theoretical determinants of budgetary spending are reviewed, which consider political, economic and military factors behind high expenditures on the army in Greece and in Turkey. Finally, Granger causality tests is applied to determine whether a causal relation between variables exists in the case of these two countries.

We conclude that defense expenditures in Greece and Turkey exceed the NATO average, but are relatively low relative to those of selected Middle Eastern countries. Our results indicate that high military spending level in Turkey is mainly driven by national security concerns, whereas an economic driver prevails in Greece.

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Is Currency Appreciation or Depreciation Expansionary in Kosovo?

Abstract

Applying an extended IS-MP-AS model (Romer, 2000), this paper shows that real depreciation of the euro raises real GDP in Kosovo and that a lower real lending rate in the euro area, a higher real GDP in Germany, a lower real oil price, or a lower expected inflation rate would help increase real GDP. More government deficit spending as a percent of GDP does not affect real GDP.

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