The paper presents selected test results of the PERKINS 1104D-E44TA engine, adjusted to being dual-fuelled with compressed natural gas and Diesel fuel. The tests were carried out with maximum possible dosing of natural gas and then with lowering its dosing by approximately half. The obtained test results were compared with the results of tests carried out when the engine was powered with Diesel fuel only.
Financial market had developed a special instrument to insure the buyers of bonds. This instrument is so called Credit Default Swap (CDS). The CDS price is a kind of insurance premium that the buyer of CDS pays to the seller of CDS in exchange for compensation of possible loss in operation. Paper analyses causality between CDS price and dynamics of bond yields and influence of macroeconomic factors on it in four selected countries during the last financial crisis. Analysis results show that there is no important macroeconomic variable included in the analysis that preceded the CDS prices connected with German government bonds. Sellers of CDS were apparently aware of the systemic nature of the financial crisis in the euro area. In the case of the United Kingdom, Russia and Slovenia we can observe the unemployment rate as the most important macroeconomic variable that preceded the CDS prices for government bonds.
The financial crises are closely connected with spread changes and liquidity issues. After defining and addressing spread considerations, we research in this paper the topic of liquidity issues in times of economic crisis. We analyse the liquidity effects as recorded on spreads of securities from different markets. We stipulate that higher international risk aversion in times of financial crises coincides with widening security spreads. The paper then introduces liquidity as a risk factor into the standard value-at-risk framework, using GARCH methodology. The comparison of results of these models suggests that the size of the tested markets does not have a strong effect on the models. Thus, we find that spread analysis is an appropriate tool for analysing liquidity issues during a financial crisis.
There is a long tradition in literature that banks can play a special role in the propagation of economic fluctuations. Theory suggests many channels through which financial system affects, and is affected by, economic growth. One of the most important empirical studies on this topic shows a strong positive relation between financial development and economic growth. However, the hypothesis that credit expansion is the main development instrument was challenged in the Asian crisis in the second half of the 1990s, and then even more strongly in the crisis after 2008 which was followed by almost a decade of economic stagnation. Development of the banking sector in Southeast European countries in the pre-crisis period was characterized by relatively high credit growth rates and, consequently, with an increase of the credit-to-GDP ratio. Some authors argue that the marginal effect of financial depth on economic growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches about 100% of GDP. Taking into account relatively low level of credit-to-GDP ratio, we may assume that there is still enough room for finance to contribute to economic growth in Southeast European countries.
During the global banking crisis of 2007-2009 and the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis of 2010-2012 the so called ‘TARGET2 imbalances’ attracted considerable attention. Some economists interpreted them as a symptom of the ECB’s ‘stealth bail-out’. The aim of the paper is to highlight that contrary to such claim, the emergence of TARGET2 imbalances reflected the benefits of having a mutual central bank within a monetary union which facilitated cross-border funding in spite of the global financial turbulence. The ECB’s liquidity loans to commercial banks in the Eurozone debtor countries shielded the Eurozone from a much deeper financial crisis than it actually occurred. The emergence of the TARGET 2 imbalances was actually only an accounting phenomenon resulting from the fact that these liquidity loans were technically extended by the debtor countries’ national central banks which are de facto (from the monetary policy perspective) ECB’s regional branches.
The aim of the work was to analyze the possibilities of measuring the phenomenon of financialization on a regional basis. The article attempts the move with the measurement of financialization from the level of countries to the level of regions. In the paper, some variables that can measure financialization at the level of voivodeships were used to create an index of regional financialization. The research proposal was verified empirically, using data from 2005–2015 for 16 Polish voivodeships. The results obtained allowed for the ranking of individual regions of the country, in terms of the degree of intensification of financialization. The regional approach is a subject, which is poorly recognized in the literature on the subject. However, according to the authors of the article, individual regions of the country may have a different degree of intensity of financialization, and knowledge on this subject may form the basis for strategic decisions regarding further development of these regions. The authors of the work wanted to pay attention to this issue and initiate further research in this direction. The presented methodology is only an attempt to measure this phenomenon and can be developed in subsequent studies.
This study proposes to assess the vulnerability of banking sector’s credit portfolio under macroeconomic shocks and to evaluate its impact on banking system capitalization. Our method uses the Global Vector Autoregressive (GVAR) Model to generate adverse macroeconomic scenarios. The GVAR model is combining by the satellite credit risk equation to find the non-performing loan under stress conditions. The advantage of using GVAR model is that on the one hand, it captures the transmission of global, external and domestic macroeconomic shocks on banks non-performing loans. On the other hand, this model considers the nonlinear pattern between business cycle and the bank credit risk indicator during the extreme events as highlighting by the macro stress test literature. The forecast of non-performing loan is then used to obtain stress projections for capital requirement for the banking system level. This article attempts to fill the lacks concerning the stress testing works about Madagascar which study is a recent framework, whose no study on dynamic macro stress testing was treated before. The Results outline the interaction of aggregate non-performing loan with macroeconomic evolution. The horizon of capital prediction shows that banking sector reacts most to a GDP shock. Also, Madagascar banking sector is quite resilient and remains sufficiently capitalized under all macroeconomic scenarios designed with a solvency ratio higher than the minimum regulatory CAR ratio.
Financial derivatives are, in the last forty years, the most important financial innovation that influence the creation of new, very deep and broad financial markets. Their number is constantly increasing. There is a creation of new variants of existing derivative contracts and therefore the subjects have the opportunity to differently manage risk. Although their controversial legal nature, generally accepted view is that they were contracts. Swap is the youngest of all financial derivatives and represents a financial innovation of a later date. Market swaps recorded one of the fastest growth rate among global financial markets. Swap represents a private agreement between the two parties regarding exchange cash flow of the fixed time in the future in accordance with a predetermined pattern. The most common users of swaps are non-financial corporations, which want to receive variable, and to pay a fixed interest rate in order to limit interest expenses on bank loans or bond issues with variable interest rate, as well as banks, the governments of some supranational institutions such as the World Bank. In economic theory emphasized is the view that the comparative advantage is the basis for swaps functioning. Options are contracts in which one party has the exclusive right, while the other contracting party assumes only the obligation to buy or sell assets to which the option is created. In the nationa legislation the option contract is transferable standardized contract binding the buyer has the right to, including the payment obligation of the agreed premium on the day or days of maturity specified in the contract.
The multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) framework is used to analyze dimensions related to causation and indicators of tax haven status. Robust results were obtained that identify a country’s tax burden and area as causes of a country adopting policies usually observed in tax havens. The level of social security contributions as a proportion of public revenues and the ratio of indirect to direct taxes were found to be statistically significant indicators of tax havens. Data from 68 countries for more than twenty years were analyzed, enabling the results to contribute to a deepening of the current debate about tax havens and their socio-economic profiles.
The objective of this paper is to investigate how the housing market and credit market factors contribute to US business and interest rate cycles in a time-varying transition probability modeling framework. The Markov switching results appear to exhibit periods of low-growth regime and highgrowth regime for both house and credit markets. The study also shows that the transition probabilities reflecting the regime switching behavior of business and interest rate cycles vary over time as functions of the house and credit market. We find that both the housing market and credit market contribute to whether the economy remains in a high-growth regime or moves into lowgrowth regime, and whether the interest rates remain in a low or high-growth regime. The results show that the housing market plays a leading role in affecting the time-varying probabilities between regimes for the business and interest rate cycles.