Tax Revenues of Post - Communist E.U. Member Countries
This article aims to analyze and evaluate tax policy of 10 post communist countries of the EU, especially the Slovak Republic and Czech Republic, during the their first 5 years in the community (Bulgaria and Romania, which joined later, are not members throughout the analysis period) through the development of their tax revenues. Data to analyze are the data of the European Commission (European Commission, 2010) for the years 2003 to 2008. The subject of analysis is the total tax burden and the tax structure, i.e. direct and indirect taxes, VAT, excise tax, environmental taxes, personal income tax and corporation tax. The analysis uses charts of the development of the monitored values.
Overall, it is possible to say that although the 10 post-communist countries joined the European Union in the same period (2004 and 2007, respectively), and although in general these countries face similar problems in the economic and tax policies, their response to internal and external influences in area of tax revenues and mix are very often different. This is due to both their historical and cultural traditions, so the current specifics.
During the last years, in Romania and Bulgaria, an acceleration of existent disparities took place compared to the European Union countries as regards the occupational labor structures and an decreased evolution of the active population migration to other EU states. Starting from these considerations, the present paper shows an analysis of general and specific aspects of the labor market in the two neighbouring countries, starting from the general analysis, at national level, continuing with the regional analysis until the local analysis of the labor market, at cross border level. In Romania, in 2016, an employment rate of the population at work age (15-64 years old) was of 61.6%, to an active population of 8,979 thousand persons, of which 8,449 thousand employed persons and 530 thousand were unemployed. In Bulgaria, in 2016 the active population was of 3,264 thousand persons, respectively, 53.3%, of which 3,199.6 thousand employed persons and 64.4 thousand unemployed. The employment rate of the work was of 68.7%.. There are still signs that in the two countries the legislation complies to the realities and needs in practice.
The paper investigates mean and volatility spillover effects from the U.S and EU stock markets as well as oil price market into national stock markets of eight European countries. The study finds strong indication of volatility spillover effects from the US-global, EU-regional, and the world factor oil towards individual stock markets. While both mean and volatility spillover transmissions from the US are found to be significant, EU mean spillover effects are negligible. To evaluate the magnitude of volatility spillovers, the variance ratios are also computed and the results draw to attention that the individual emerging countries’ stock returns are mostly influenced by the U.S volatility spillovers rather than EU or oil markets. Additionally, examination of only global and regional stock markets spillover transmissions into European stock markets also confirms the dominating presence of the U.S spillover transmissions. Furthermore, I also implement asymmetric tests on stock returns of eight markets. The stock market returns of Hungary, Poland, Russia and the Ukraine are found to respond asymmetrically to negative and positive shocks in the US stock returns. The weak evidence of asymmetric effects with respect to oil market shocks is found only in the case of Russia and the quantified variance ratios indicate that presence of oil market shocks are relatively higher for Russia. Moreover, a model with dummy variable confirms the effect of European Union enlargement on stock returns only for Romania. Finally, a conditional model suggests that the spillover effects are partially explained by instrumental macroeconomic variables, out of which exchange rate fluctuations play the key role in explaining the spillover parameters rather than total trade to GDP ratios in most investigated countries.
According to its purpose, statute and powers well defined in the Constitution, the Romanian Army can defend only the interests of the Romanian nation which has defined, in time, its place and role in society. It is well known that the Military institution has represented a main component of the social and political life during our whole evolution of the Romanian State and the existence of the Romanian nation was always circumcised by its presence. The officer`s body and the hole army played a vital role in promoting the ideas of national interest, especially in the last one and a half century. To thisit is added the high value of the defense function and of the military institution, which played a special role in the risen credibility of the army throughout the civil society, considering all the threats that the Romanian nation and State had faced.
Andrei, L.C. (2011), European Economy , Economic Publisher, Bucharest
European Commission (2015), Young farmers and the CAP . Brussels: Publications Office of the European Union
EU Regulation nr.1307/17.12.2013
Feher, A., Gosa V., Stanciu, S.M., Raicov, M., Pentea, O.A. (2012), Rural development financing. The new E.U. Multiannual Financial Framework 2014-2020 , Lucrări ştiinţifice Management Agricol, Seria I, vol. XIV(3), pp. 299-304, ISSN: 1453-1410
National Rural Development Programme for the 2014 – 2020
Irineu Loturco, Ian Jeffreys, Ronaldo Kobal, César C. Cal Abad, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Vinicius Zanetti, Lucas A. Pereira and Fábio Y. Nakamura
plyometrics and jump squat (JS) training strategies ( Loturco et al., 2015e , f). For instance, gains in jumping ability were positively transferred to sprinting speed in U20 elite soccer players ( Loturco et al., 2015f ). However, less is known about the age-related elements of these factors and how power-speed characteristics change as a player develops through age-group classifications (i.e., U15 players) into adult categories (i.e., senior players) in professional clubs. This is important in order to provide guidelines on expected longitudinal gains ( Williams et al
It has been previously demonstrated that reducing stress at work means actually reducing risk of illness in life. Occupational distress is one of the most important health problems in the E.U.
In Europe, it is on the second place as regards the number of days off and cost. Occupational distress affects one out of three employees in the E.U. Over the last few years, some organizations have worked out programs designed to help all the employees physically and mentally in order to prevent problems related to stressing jobs. All these plans are trying to reduce work-related stress. This article aims at presenting some strategies to prevent and reduce stress at the organizational level and individually.
In a graph G, the distance d(u, v) between a pair of vertices u and v is the length of a shortest path joining them. The eccentricity e(u) of a vertex u is the distance to a vertex farthest from u. The minimum eccentricity is called the radius, r(G), of the graph and the maximum eccentricity is called the diameter, d(G), of the graph. The super-radial graph R*(G) based on G has the vertex set as in G and two vertices u and v are adjacent in R*(G) if the distance between them in G is greater than or equal to d(G) − r(G) + 1 in G. If G is disconnected, then two vertices are adjacent in R*(G) if they belong to different components. A graph G is said to be a super-radial graph if it is a super-radial graph R*(H) of some graph H. The main objective of this paper is to solve the graph equation R*(H) = G for a given graph G.
Marek Babicz, Kinga Kropiwiec, Magdalena Szyndler-Nędza and Ewa Skrzypczak
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the meatiness of the Puławska pig carcass and selected physical and chemical parameters of pork offal. The study was conducted on a group of 50 porkers of the native Puławska breed, whose carcasses were classified into five classes: E, U, R, O, and P, covering 10 specimens each. Samples were collected from the tongue, heart, lungs, liver and kidneys, and the pH (pH45, pH24), percentage of free water and chemical composition (ash, fat, protein) were determined. To summarise the obtained results, it can be concluded that the increase of the meat content in carcass significantly and primarily affects the reduction of the offal’s weight and then the reduction of the pH45 as well as the increase of the free water content primarily in the kidney and the lungs. In the case of chemical composition an increase of the meatiness in the carcass affected the reduction of fat content in the kidneys, lungs, heart and liver. The liver and the heart were the offal with the greatest susceptibility to the effects of the carcass meatiness. In this offal the increase of the carcass meatiness significantly decreased the fat content and energy value, and also increased the ash and protein content. Offal from the studied meatiness classes of the pigs’ carcasses was characterised by adequate quality and suitability for processing.
Gulser Meric, Berrin Guner, Shifei Chung and Ilhan Meric
Comparing the management characteristics of business firms in different countries has been a popular research topic in business administration. In this paper, we compare the management characteristics of U.S., German, and Japanese manufacturing corporations. The findings of our study can provide valuable insights for corporate managers and global investors. We find that U.S. manufacturing corporations have the lowest liquidity risk (i.e., U.S. manufacturing firms have higher liquidity levels) compared with German and Japanese manufacturing corporations. German manufacturing corporations have the highest bankruptcy risk (i.e., German manufacturing firms have higher liability levels) compared with U.S. and Japanese manufacturing corporations. The average collection period of accounts receivable and the average payment period of accounts payable are significantly shorter in U.S. manufacturing corporations compared with their German and Japanese counterparts. Due to the extensive use of the just-in-time inventory management system in Japanese Keiretsu industry groupings, Japanese manufacturing corporations have higher inventory turnover rates (i.e., Japanese manufacturing corporations carry lower inventory levels) compared with U.S. and German manufacturing corporations. U.S. manufacturing corporations are able to earn higher operating profit margins compared with their German and Japanese counterparts because they are able to charge higher product prices to customers and/or they are able to have lower manufacturing costs. Japanese manufacturing corporations have the lowest annual sales and total assets growth rates compared with U.S. and German manufacturing corporations.