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Problems with staffing play a crucial role among factors influencing the quality of English language teaching at Czech primary and lower secondary schools. Since 1990 the shortage of teachers of English as a foreign language has been repeatedly reported by the Czech School Inspectorate. The shortage is largely caused by the reluctance of English language teacher education study programme graduates to accept teaching positions at primary and lower secondary schools. A drop-out syndrome in the early stages of the teachers’ career is another factor that may contribute to the lack of teachers of English. Unfortunately, it has not been researched in the Czech Republic and it has not been systematically monitored by the state. In the research study focusing on novice teacher drop-out, conducted in 2015–2017, we deal with the process of socialisation of novice teachers in schools and with external factors that influence the socialisation and that can be seen as predictors of novice teachers’ decision to stay in their current school or leave either the school or the teaching profession. The current paper presents partial findings related to drop-out intentions of novice teachers of English as a foreign language in comparison with teachers of other subjects. Our findings indicate that drop-out intentions are more frequent in teachers of English as a foreign language than for other teachers and that teachers of English evaluate their cooperation with colleagues and leadership at their schools more critically than other teachers.


In the strategy 'Europe 2020', EU claimed the aims to increase the ratio of graduates among 30-34-year old people, which means the expansion of the number of students in higher education as well as the decrease of dropouts. This double purpose is considered to be a big challenge both for countries and for higher educational institutes. It could be stated that parallel with the increase of higher education enrolment, supporting students who have already been admitted to higher education must be emphasized so that they could absolve their subject and take their degree.


Higher Education increases flexibility with online learning solutions. Nevertheless, dropout rates in online university are large. Among the reasons, one aspect deserving further study is students’ Time Perspective (TP), which has been studied in onsite HE. It is necessary to know the TP profile of the growing population of online students, and consider its relation with students’ preference and convenience factors for choosing online or onsite contexts. In this study, learners’ TP in an online and an onsite Catalan HE institutions are compared. Results show that HE students present a high future orientation in general, while online students showed a higher orientation to past negativism. Basic guides are given to help institutions and students in the choice of the better suited learning context according to their TP.


A technique of DropOut for preventing overfitting of convolutional neural networks for image classification is considered in the paper. The goal is to find a rule of rationally allocating DropOut layers of 0.5 rate to maximise performance. To achieve the goal, two common network architectures are used having either 4 or 5 convolutional layers. Benchmarking is fulfilled with CIFAR-10, EEACL26, and NORB datasets. Initially, series of all admissible versions for allocation of DropOut layers are generated. After the performance against the series is evaluated, normalized and averaged, the compromising rule is found. It consists in non-compactly inserting a few DropOut layers before the last convolutional layer. It is likely that the scheme with two or more DropOut layers fits networks of many convolutional layers for image classification problems with a plenty of features. Such a scheme shall also fit simple datasets prone to overfitting. In fact, the rule “prefers” a fewer number of DropOut layers. The exemplary gain of the rule application is roughly between 10 % and 50 %.

-597). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 19. Keller, J. M., & Kopp, T. W. (1987). An application of the ARCS model of motivational design. In C. M. Reigeluth (Eds.), Instructional theories in action: Lessons illustrating selected theories and models (pp. 289-320). Hillsdale: Erlbaum. 20. Kember, D. (1989). A longitudinal-process model of drop-out from distance education. Journal of Higher Education, 60, 278-301. 21. Kranzow, J. (2013). Faculty leadership in online education: Structuring courses to impact student satisfaction and persistence. Journal of Online

provide more information than G.P.A. alone in predicting subsequent online course grades and retention? An observational study at an urban community college. Computers & Education, 72, 59-67. 14. Herbert, M. (2006). Staying the course: A study in online student satisfaction and retention. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 9(4). Retrieved March 3, 2016, from 15. Kember, D. (1989). A longitudinal-process model of drop-out from distance education. Journal of Higher Education, 60(3), 278-301. 16


Nowadays, whether we discuss either adult education or continuing training we possess comprehensive knowledge of the input side of the trainings. We have detailed data of the accredited institutions, instructors, the structure, content and operational indicators of the trainings, still we know less of the drop-outs, absentees and the reasons for the low participation rate in adult education. We have minimal information even when we analyse the existing data concerning the outcome of the successfully finished adult educational programs.


This study aims at empirically examining the relation of self-esteem and loneliness with social presence, academic performance, satisfaction with the course and intention for academic drop out, in a blended distance learning environment in Greece. The study involved both undergraduate and postgraduate students of the Hellenic Open University (HOU). Data were collected via a four-section questionnaire. The correlational data analysis yielded a negative correlation between self-esteem and intention for academic drop out, while there is a positive correlation between self-esteem and satisfaction derived from the course. Results also suggested that there is no correlation between self-esteem and academic performance. Findings also revealed that there is no statistically significant correlation between loneliness and the other variables under examination. Furthermore, the results showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the examined variables in relation to the demographic features (gender, age, etc.). The findings of the present study are discussed in relation to the relevant literature, taking into consideration the blended learning educational format offered by the HOU which is based on methodologies used in other European institutions that offer distance learning courses. Finally, recommendations for further research are presented.


In diagnosing the aspiration of the foreign body (AFB) in children most important are: medical history, clinical signs and positive radiography of the lungs. Common dilemmas in the diff erential diagnosis are life-threatening asthma attacks or difficult pneumonia. Conventional rigid bronchoscopy (RB) is not recommended as a routine method. Virtual bronchoscopy (VB) can be a diagnostic tool for solving dilemmas. Fiber-optic bronchoscopy (FOB) has a therapeutic stake in severe cases. Herein, we describe a girl, at the age of 6, who was hospitalized due to rapid bronchoconstriction and based on the anamnesis, clinical symptoms and physical fi ndings the suspicion was that she aspirated the foreign body. Due to the poor general condition and possible sequel, the idea of RB was dropped out. Multidetector computed tomography of the chest and VB was performed and AFB was not found. Due to positive epidemiological situation, virus H1N1 was excluded. FOB established that the foreign body does not exist in the airways. During bronchoscopy numerous castings are aspirated from the peripheral airways which lead to faster final recovery. With additional procedures, the diagnosis of asthma was confirmed and for girl that was the first attack. Along with inhaled corticosteroids as prevention she feels well.

Virtual bronchoscopy can be successfully used as a valid diagnostic procedure in suspected foreign body in the children’s lungs, but fiber-optic bronchoscopy remains most important diagnostic and therapeutic method.


Pregnancy is a period marked by profound changes in a woman’s hormonal status and metabolism, including the development of a carbohydrate-intolerant state. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.

The aim of this study was to estimate and analyse the parameters of glycaemic control during pregnancy. We stratified patients into the following three groups according to OGTT results: normal glucose tolerance (NTG), gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) and GDM.

We investigated 92 pregnant women, diagnosed with vital and desired pregnancy up to 12 weeks of gestation, who had signed informed consent forms. Among them, 7 pregnant women had a spontaneous abortion, while 8 pregnant women dropped out, so a total of 77 pregnant women completed the trial. Most of the women examined had no risk factors (48%), while 35% of the women had one risk factor. The current study demonstrates that normal glucose tolerance was shown in 59 (76.6%) participants, while some form of glucose intolerance (GIGT or GDM) was shown in 18 (23.4%) patients. Our findings revealed an increase in glucose intolerance with advancing pregnancy (in the second and third trimester). In conclusion, we demonstrate that the difference in the quality of glycaemic control during pregnancy is manifested in the second and third trimester, until it manifests in the first trimester. These findings underpin the clinical significance of discovering GDM.