”, Sofia, 2002 , 760 pp.
. Kime, R.D.; H., Enghoff, “Atlas of European millipedes (Class Diplopoda)”, PENSOFT Publichers, Sofia-Moskow, 2011 , 282 pp.
. Verhoeff, K., „Über einige von Dr. I. Buresch in Bulgarien gesammelte Diplopoden”, 2. Aufsatz, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de Bulgarie , 1926 , 3 , 193-210.
. Schubart, O., “Über einige von Dr. Rensch in Bulgarien gesammelte Diplopoden”, Mitteilungen aus den Königlichen naturwissenschaftlichen Instituten in Sofia – Bulgarien, 1934 , 7 , 36-50.
. Lang, J., „Über
Darina Bachvarova, Aleksandar Doichinov and Rayme Abdulova
. Khanna, V., Myriapoda (Millipedes and Centipedes). In: Alfred, J.R.B., Ramakrishna (eds.): Collection, preservation and identification of animals, Zoological Survey of India 2005 , 181-188.
. Golovatch, I. S.; Kime, D. R., Millipede (Diplopoda) distributions: A review, Soil Organisms 2009 , 81(3) , 565–597.
. Barlow, C.A., A factorial analysis of distribution in three species of diplopods, Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 1957 , 100 (3) , 349-426.
. Barlow, C.A. Distribution and seasonal activoity in three
phylogenies: an approach using the Bootstrap. Evolution , 39: 783 – 791. DOI: 10.2307/2408678
H unt , D.J., M oore , D. (1995): Rhigonema trichopeplum sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhigonematidae), parasite of a millipede (Diplopoda: Spirobolida) from Myanmar. Fundam. Appl. Nematol., 18: 553 – 558
I vanov , I.I., A tarashi , K., M anel , N., B rodie , E.L., S hima , T., K araoz , U., W ei , D., G oldfarb , K.C., S antee , C.A., L ynch , S. V., T anoue , T., I maoka , A., I toh , K., T akeda , K., U mesaki , Y., H onda , K., L ittman , D.R. (2009): Induction of
During the survey of Pachyiulus krivolutskyi Golovatch, 1977 (Diplopoda) near Nickel’ in Adygei Republic (Russia) in the summer 2009 the infestation of these millipeds with nematomorphs of the species Gordionus alpestris was revealed. The morphology of naturally emerging nematomorphs was studied in SEM. The partial sequences of 18S (883 bp) and 28S (393 bp) rDNA PCR-products were obtained and analyzed. An unexpectedly high level of differences between Gordionus alpestris found in diplopods of North-West Caucasus and other molecularly studied representatives of the family Chordodidae was observed.
The role of the robin, Erithacus rubecula Linnaeus, 1758 as a consort of autotrophic consortia is considered. It has been found that representatives of 9 higher taxa of animals (Mammalia, Aves, Gastropoda, Insecta, Arachnida, Acarina, Malacostraca, Diplopoda, Clitellata) have trophic and topical links with the robin. At the same time, the robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753 (24.6 %), Tilia cordata Miller, 1768 (17.5 %), Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753 (22.8 %), Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753), and also by sedges (Carex sp.) and grasses (Poaceae). The robin also belongs to the concentre of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and forms a complex trophic system. In the diet of its nestlings, there have been found 717 objects from 32 invertebrate taxa, belonging to the phylums Arthropoda (99.2 %, 31 species) and Annelida (0.8 %, 1 species). The phylum Arthropoda was represented by the most numerous class Insecta (76.9 %), in which 10 orders (Lepidoptera (46.8 %) dominates) and 20 families were recorded, and also by the classes Arachnida (15.0 %), Malacostraca (5.3 %) and Diplopoda (1.9 %). The invertebrate species composition was dominated by representatives of a trophic group of zoophages (14 species; 43.8 %); the portion of phytophages (7 species; 21.9 %), saprophages (18.7 %), and necrophages (15.6 %) was the less. The highest number of food items was represented by phytophages (N = 717; 51 %), followed by zoophages (34 %), saprophages (12 %), and necrophages (3 %). The difference among study areas according to the number of food items and the number of species in the robin nestling diet is shown. In NNP “HF”, the highest number of food items was represented by phytophages - 47 % (N = 443), whereas zoophages were the most species-rich group (43.3 %, 13 species). In NNP “H”, phytophages also prevailed in food items - 62.3 % (N = 164), but the number of phyto-, zoo- and saprophage species was equal (30.8 %, 13 species). In the forest park, zoophages were more frequent - 45.5 % (N = 110), but phytophages were the most species-rich (42.9 %).
We have pointed out 272 plant and 217 animal, altogether 489 taxa in the diet of Great Bustard on the basis of data received from 9 (10) countries for Otis tarda tarda (Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, former Soviet Union). Out of 272 plant taxa, 40 were classified as cultivated plants, 232 wild plants and weeds. From the latter, 43 taxa were monocotyledons and 189 were dicotyledons. Animal food is shared among Annelida (n = 3), Arthropoda (189) Mollusca (2) and Vertebrata (23) phyla. Arthropods are mostly represented with Insecta (181), Arachnoidea (3), Chilopoda (2), Diplopoda (2) and Crustacea (mostly Isopoda) (1) classes. The component of the diet is possibly not related to selection but to the change of the abundance and availability of food and the ever present demand for animal food needed for the organism. Owing to the high number of taxa known as food, Great Bustard is definitely a generalist species. Due to the wide spectrum of animal taxa and because of the ability to subsidize the inefficient quality of food with quantity, Great Bustards can be regarded as a species with positive adaptation ability. It can be explained with a wide plant and animal food spectrum that Great Bustards even in intensive agricultural habitats can find food with indispensable quantity and quality.
Jana Porhajašová, Jaroslav Noskovič, Alena Rakovská, Mária Babošová and Terézia Čeryová
The aim of this work was to determine and compare the occurrence of epigeic groups in two methods of farming, ecological one and integrated one. The research was conducte in the locality Nitra – Dolná Malanta in the years 2013 and 2014. The monitoring locality is situated in the south-western part of Slovakia, in altitude 175–180 m on highly productive soils. For the collection of biological material, the earth traps method was applied, used during the vegetation period (from April to October), within both farming systems, at Hordeum sativum, Triticum aestivum and Vicia faba undersowing with Medicago sativa. In canopy of these crops, two soil traps were installed, renewed in monthly intervals. The total of 7,722 exemplars of epigeic groups was obtained, of which 4,355 exemplars were in ecological farming and 3,367 exemplars in integrated farming system. In both treatments, 19 epigeic groups were determined, with dominant abundance of Coleoptera, Collembola, Acarina, Araneae. Also other groups such as Diplopoda, Heteroptera, Chilopoda etc. were observed in lower occurrence. Based on the evaluation of influence of the crop in terms of the occurrence of epigeic groups, the most suitable conditions created Vicia faba with undersowing Medicago sativa (integrated farming) and Triticum aestivum (ecological farming). On the basis of calculated indexes, both farming systems can be evaluated as homeostatically balanced, providing present epigeic groups with topical and trophic conditions.
Minilivestock (Paoletti M. G., Ed.), USA, pp. 459-474, Science, Enfield, NH.
Perlẻs C. 2006. Risorse selvatiche e risorse domestiche. In: Storia e geografia dell’alimentazione-Rosprse (Montanari M., Sabban F., Eds), Volume 1, UTET.
Pugach S., Crawford S. 1978. Seasonal changes in haemolymph amino acids, proteins and inorganic ions of a dessert millipede Orthoporus ornatus (Girard) (Diplopoda: Spirostreptidae). Can. J. Zool. 56: 1460-1465.
Punzo F. 1990. The haemolymph composition and neurochemistry of the spider wasp, Pepsis
to the knowledge of some Arthropoda (Scorpiones, Pseudoscorpiones, Araneae, Acari, Diplopoda and Chilopoda) in forest communities of Croatia. Nat. Croat. Zagreb. 4: 185-225.
Ryke P. A. J. 1961. A review of the genus Asca von Heyden with descriptions of new species (Acarina; Mesostigmata; Rhodacaridae). Zoologischer Anzeiger 167: 127-135.