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Most of the people living in developing or less developed countries have limited earning to provide somehow their basic needs & usual staff. Carrying goods is a regular task in life & several products have been invented to minimize efforts in this purpose. But the product’s price & features are not optimum for the people of fewer earnings. Stair climbing cart is very useful for those houses where a lift is not available and goods have to be carried frequently upstairs. In this research, the mechanical design has been modified so that the manufacturing cost can be minimized. Finite element analysis has been performed upon the design to find out how the manufacturing cost can be reduced by making the design optimal for manufacturing cost and process. The result shows that the structural members should not be processed further because any tooling operation will require an extra machine as well as an extra cost. Only the wheels are possible to subject under optimization by reducing material as well as weight. This article will be a valuable asset for the mass manufacturers of this type of product.


This article describes the influence of various design modifications of the ammonia oxidation reactor operating in nitric acid plant TKIV in Kędzierzyn-Koźle on flow distribution of an air-ammonia mixture. The CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations of turbulent flow were carried out with SST k-ω turbulence model to close the system of RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) equations. The simulation results show that the properly selected perforated plate screen and the conical diffuser ensure uniform flow of gas on the ammonia oxidation catalysts and on the catalysts for nitrous oxide decomposition. It was proved experimentally achieving uniform temperature of nitrous gases in different locations under the catalytic gauzes and high efficiency of ammonia oxidation and nitrous oxide decomposition


The aim of this study was to compare the effects of game design modification, the type of the goal and the number of players on the intensity of play in small-sided soccer games (SSGs) in youth elite players. Twenty young soccer players (age 13.7 ± 0.5 years, body mass 57.4 ± 7.8 kg, body height 1.67 ± 7.8 m, maximal heart rate 201.1 ± 8.2 beats/min) performed three types of SSGs (possession play (PP) vs. regular goals (RG) vs. small goals (SG)) in both four-a-side and six-a-side formats. The heart rate responses were recorded and analysed as an indicator of the intensity of play. The four-a-side format obtained higher intensity of play than six-a-side for PP (p<0.05), but not for SG and RG. SG showed higher intensity of play than RG for four-a-side (p<0.001), but not for six-a-side. PP registered higher intensity of play than RG (p<0.05), but not than SG in four-a-side, whereas in six-a-side no differences were found between the three formats. In conclusion, the modification of variables such as the number of players, the game design and the type of the goal influences the intensity of play in small-sided soccer games in youth players.

Disturbances in the European Nuclear Power Plant Safety Related Electrical Systems

This work is part of the European Clearinghouse on Nuclear Power Plant Operational Experience Feedback (NPP-OEF) activity carried out at the Joint Research Centre/Institute for Energy (JRC/IE) with the participation of ten EU Regulatory Authorities. It investigates the Forsmark-1 event of July 2006, as well as about 120 disturbances in the plant electrical systems that were reported to the Incident Reporting System (IRS) and US Licensee Event Reports (LER) in the period 1985-2008. The aim of the work was to provide important insights from the Forsmark event of July 2006 and illustrate some vulnerabilities of the plant electrical system to over voltage transients. It identified electrical equipment involved, failure modes, contributing factors, actual and potential consequences, and corrective actions. Initiating factors and associated root causes were also analysed. The analysis of International Operation Experience Feedback revealed number of events that involved disturbances in the plant electrical systems, and which may have features in common with the Forsmark-1 event. It underlines the importance of sharing lessons learned from design modifications made at another unit of similar design that if known, it could have identified susceptibility of emergency diesel generators to common mode failure before the event occurred. This paper also summarizes international projects that were initiated by Forsmark event, as well as important lessons that still can be learned from Forsmark event. This paper presents actions taken at nuclear power plants and regulatory authorities in different countries to prevent similar event to occur.

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