Der p 1 is the main allergen of house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, which has routinely been detected in residential dust. However, the procedure for extracting Der p 1 from reservoir dust has not been well defi ned. The aim of this study was to compare Der p 1 mass fractions in dust extracts prepared using the following extraction buffers: phosphate (pH 7.4), borate (pH 8.0), and ammonium bicarbonate (pH 8.0), all with 0.05 % Tween 20. Twenty-eight dust samples were divided into three aliquots and each portion was extracted with one of the three buffers at room temperature. Der p 1 mass fractions were measured in a total of 84 dust extracts using the enzyme immunoassay (range: 0.1 μg g-1 to 7.53 μg g-1). Statistical methods including intraclass correlation showed a high agreement between Der p 1 mass fractions irrespective of the extracting medium. Our results suggest that all three buffers are suitable for the extraction of mite allergens and routine Der p 1 analysis in dust.
Asthma and allergic rhinitis are common in childhood. Establishing sensitization to aeroallergens is crucial to effectively prevent exacerbation of these respiratory allergic diseases. The study aimed to evaluate sensitization to the most common aeroallergens in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis.We establishedacorrelation between patients sensitized to indoor, outdoor and simultaneously to both allergens. The study population consisted of 276 patients (168 boys and 108 girls) ages 4 to 16 years with asthma (A) and allergic rhinitis (AR). Skin prick tests were performed with 21 commercial allergen extracts: pollens, mites, epithelia and insects, and molds. We found that 217 patients were sensitized to at least one aeroallergen: 117 patients hadapositive result to mites, 92 to pollens, 72 to epithelia and insects, and 63 - to mold allergens. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the most prevalent aeroallergen. Sensitized only to indoor allergens were 104 patients, 60 - only to outdoor allergens, and 53 were sensitized to both. Mites were the most frequent aeroallergens in children with Aand AR. Lately there has been foundasignificant increase in rates of sensitization to mold allergens, especially to Alternaria alternata. Our study has confirmed the dominant role of indoor allergens in children with respiratory allergic diseases.
Determination of mite Allergens in House Dust Using the Enzyme Immunoassay
The aim of this study was to determine the level of two major mite allergens Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1) in 30 urban homes in Zagreb, Croatia, using the enzyme immunoassay with two monoclonal antibodies which has been established as the reference method for indoor allergen analysis. Dust samples were taken by vacuuming a carpeted area and collected on cellulose filters. The ranges of Der p 1 and Der f 1 were (0.1-12.5) μg g-1 (median 0.32 μg g-1) and (0.1-31.2) μg g-1 (median 0.35 μg g-1), respectively. Der p 1 and Der f 1 (>2 μg g-1) associated with increased risk of sensitization to mite allergens were found in approximately 16% homes for each allergen. The sum of allergen (Der p 1 + Der f 1) exceeded the lower threshold in 27% of homes. Analytical evaluation of the ELISA assay showed satisfactory results for precision (intra-assay CV <6.9%, inter-assay CV<13.3%), accuracy (91% to 93%), and sensitivity (2 ng mL-1).
The ELISA assay for the measurement of dust mite allergens demonstrated very good analytical characteristics for routine laboratory use, and will provide the essential basis for our future studies of various indoor allergens.
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