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samples from urban and rural occupational environments in Croatia. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2005;56:327-32. Gross I, Heinrich J, Fahlbusch B, Jäger L, Bischoff W, Wichmann HE. Indoor determinants of Der p 1 and Der f 1 concentrations in house dust are different. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30:376-82. de Andrade D, Birnbaum J, Lanteaume A, Izard JL, Corget P, Artillan MF, Toumi M, Vervloet D, Charpin D. Housing and house-dust mites. Allergy 1995;50:142-6. van Strien RT, Gehring U, Belanger K, Triche E, Gent J, Bracken MB, Leaderer BP. The influence of air conditioning

L. House-dust-mite allergen concentrations (Der f 1) and mold spores in apartment bedrooms before and after installation of insulated windows and central heating system. Allergy 2000;55:79-83. de Andrade D, Birnbaum J, Lanteaume A, Izard JL, Corget P, Artillan MF, Toumi M, Vervloet D, Charpin D. Housing and house-dust mites. Allergy 1995;50:142-6. Hallas TE, Gislason D, Björnsdottir US, Jörundsdottir KB, Janson C, Luczynska CM, Gislason T. Sensitization to house dust mites in Reykjavik, Iceland, in the absence of domestic exposure to mites. Allergy 2004

. Age structure and dynamics of house dust mite populations. Exp Appl Acarol 1992;16:49-74. Chapman MD. Guanine-an adequate index of mite exposure? Allergy 1993;48:301-2. Luczynska CM, Arruda LK, Platts-Mills TAE, Miller JD, Lopez M, Chapman MD. A two-site monoclonal antibody ELISA for the quantification of the major Dermatophagoides spp. allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1. J Immunol Methods 1989;118:227-35. Prester L, Brčić Karačonji I, Macan J. Determination of mite allergens in house dust using the enzyme immunoassay. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2007;58:413-9. Tsay A

Risk of Wheezing Associated with House-dust Mite Allergens and Indoor Air Quality Among Three-year-old Children. Kraków Inner City Study

Objectives: The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of house-dust mite (HDM) allergens in homes of three-year-old children and to test the hypothesis whether the content of HDM allergens exceeding 2 μg/g of dust may be regarded as a risk level possibly affecting respiratory health in early childhood. Materials and Methods: House-dust samples were collected in 275 dwellings from mattresses, children's bedrooms and kitchen floors. In the laboratory, dust samples were analyzed for Der f 1 and Der p 1 using monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). At the time of the house-dust collection, mothers were interviewed on the household characteristics and their children's respiratory health. Respiratory outcome variables included wheezing or whistling in the chest irrespective of respiratory infections. The number of the wheezing episodes and their duration in days over the last 6 months were recorded in the questionnaire. In the multivariate Poisson regression analysis on the association between the occurrence of wheezing and exposure, a set of potential confounders, such as child's gender, maternal education, maternal allergy, older siblings, presence of moulds, house dampness, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was taken into account. Results: The adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of wheezing ascribed to a higher HDM level (> 2.0 μg/g dust) were 1.84 (95% CI: 1.45-2.34) for duration of wheezing and 1.56 (95% CI: 0.88-2.75) for episodes. Of the confounders taken into consideration, the presence of moulds had the strongest impact on the risk of wheezing (IRR = 4.24; 95% CI: 3.08-5.84). Conclusion: The data support the view that exposure to a higher level of HDM allergens increases the burden of respiratory diseases in the early childhood and the effect is independent of maternal atopy, ETS, and moulds in homes.

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environment. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:323-9. 39. Perfetti L, Ferrari M, Galdi E, Pozzi V, Cottica D, Grignani E, Minoia C, Moscato G. House dust mites (Dep p1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1 ) and cockroach (Bla g 2) allergens in indoor work-places (offices and archives). Sci Total Environ 2004;328:15-21.