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Isolation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells and their In Vitro Differentiation into Odontoblast-like Cells
Background: Recently, tooth tissue engineering has attracted more and more attention. Stem cell based tissue engineering is thought to be a promising way to replace the missing tooth. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells which can differentiate into a variety of cell types.
Material and Methods: We isolated stem cells from dental pulp and measured their self-renewal capacities. Adipogenic, chondrogenic as well as odontogenic differentiation potentials were investigated, using bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) for the odontogenic differentiation.
Results: The cumulative number of the isolated cells was high. Polycomb ring finger oncogene (Bmi1) and Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) were continuously expressed suggesting longer proliferative lifespan and self-renewal capacity of the isolated cells. Peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor was expressed showing adipogenic conversion that was also confirmed by positive staining of cells with Oil red O stain and chondrogenic differentiation was confirmed by positive staining of cells with Alcian blue stain. BMP2 stimulated the expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and enamelysin, indicating successful odontogenic differentiation that was also confirmed by the positive staining of the cells with Alizarin red stain.
Conclusion: Thus, adult pulp contains stem cells, which are useful for cell therapy with BMP2 for dentin regeneration.
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treated teeth implanted subcutaneously in mice [ 101 ]. bFGF-releasing scaffolds promoted robust dentin formation in a rat model of molar defect [ 102 ]. Controlled bFGF release results in localized dentin formation in the defect area [ 102 , 103 ]. The dose administered is a critical factor for the dentin formation. A low dose (0.05 mg/ml) fails to promote dentinregeneration, while a high dose (5 mg/ml) results in scattered and incomplete dentin formation [ 103 ]. Correspondingly, bFGF (dose 30 ng) did not promote dentin bridge formation, but instead fibrous