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. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 13(5), 295-303. 11. Gosnell, E. & Thikkurissy, S. (2013). Management of dental caries and esthetic issues in the pediatric patient. Journal of the California Dental Association. 41(8), 619-629.

REFERENCES 1. Fejerskov O, Kidd EAM. Dental caries. 2 ed, Blackwell Muksgaard Ltd, UK; 2008. 2. Featherstone JD. The continuum of dental caries – Evidence for a dynamic disease process. J Dent Res. 2004;83(Spec Iss C):C39-C42. 3. Bagramian RA, Garcia-Godoy F, Volpe AR. The global increase in dental caries. A pending public health crisis. Am J Dent. 2009;22(1):3-8. 4. Oral health information systems, World Health Organization website. [ http://www.who.int/oral_health/action/information/surveillance/en/ ] 5. World Health Organization: Oral health surveys basic

References 1. Peres MA, Macpherson LMD, Weyant RJ, Daly B, Venturelli R, Mathur MR et al. Oral diseases: a global public health challenge. Lancet, 2019;394:249-260 2. Bowden GHW. The Microbial Ecology of Dental Caries. Microb Ecol Health Dis 2000;12:138-148. 3. Reich E, Lussi A, Newbrun E. Caries-risk assessment. Int Dent J, 1999;49:15-26. 4. Pitts NB, Zero DT, Marsh PD, Ekstrand K, Weintraub JA, Ramos-Gomez F et al. Dental caries. Nat Rev Dis Prim, 2017;3:17030. 5. Twetman S, Fontana M. Patient Caries Risk Assessment. In: Detection, Assessment, Diagnosis and

References 1. Marthaler TM, O’Mullane DM, Vrbic V. The prevalence of dental caries in Europe 1990-1995. Caries Res , 1996; 30:237-255. 2. Petersson HG, Bratthall D. The caries decline: a review of reviews. Eur J Oral Sci, 1996; 104:436-443. 3. Bjarnason S. High caries levels: problems still to be tackled. Acta Odontol Scand, 1998; 56:176-178. 4. Hugoson A, Koch G, Göthberg C, Helkimo AN, Lundin SA, Norderyd O, Sjödin B, Sondell K. Oral health of individuals aged 3-80 years in Jönköping, Sweden during 30 years (1973-2003). II. Review of clinical and

References BSPD and IADPD. 2003. British Society of Paediatric Dentistry: a policy document on health care in preschool children. Int J Paediatr Dent 13:279-85. Chen W, Chen P, Chen SC, Shih WT, Hu HC. 1998. Lack of association between obesity and dental caries in three-year-old children. Zhonghua Min Guo Xiao Er Ke Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi 39:109-11. Cinar AB, Christensen LB, Hede B. 2011. Clustering of obesity and dental caries with lifestyle factors among Danish adolescents. Oral Health Prev Dent 9:123-30. Cole T, Bellizzi M, Flegal K, Dietz W. 2000. Establishing a

Abstract

Introduction. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of dental caries in adults patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Material and method. A cross-sectional study was performed between November 2013 and October 2014. All subjects who agreed to participate to the study were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding personal information, oral hygiene and dental evaluation. The individuals with complete false teeth (superior and inferior removable prosthetic devices) were excluded from the study. The study included 134 people divided in two groups, based on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: a group with gastroesophageal reflux disease (71), and a control group (63). Dental evaluation was performed by a dentist blind to the diagnosis of the subjects. Dental caries were evaluated by applying the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT index). The statistical significance was defined as p<0.05.

Results. From 71 subjects included in GERD group, 33 (46.48%) were males and 38 females (53.52%) with a mean age of 44.99±11.19 (42, 59.15% from urban area and 29, 40.85%, from rural area). In the control group we included 28 (44.44%) males and 35 (55.56%) females (mean age 43.84±9.48) and 29 (46.03%) subjects were from urban area and 34 (53.97%) from rural area. DMFT index in GERD group was 19.49±4.28 and in control group 18.16±4.54 (p<0.05).

Conclusions. The present study showed that there is no difference between GERD and control group, regarding the frequency of dental caries.

. 2017;59(2):201-206. 6. Kumar S. Evidence-Based Update on Diagnosis and Management of Gingivitis and Periodontitis. Dent Clin North Am. 2019 Jan;63(1):69-81. 7. Murakami S, Mealey BL, Mariotti A, Chapple ILC. Dental Plaque-Induced Gingival Conditions. J Clin Periodontol. 2018 Jun;45 Suppl 20:S17-S27. 8. Durand R, Roufegarinejad A, Chandad F, Rompré PH, Voyer R, Michalowicz BS, Emami E. Dental caries are positively associated with periodontal disease severity. Clin Oral Investig. 2019 Oct;23(10):3811-3819 9. Kovács V, Tihanyi D, Gera I. The incidence of local plaque

References 1. Marrs JA, Trumbley S, Malik G. Early childhood caries: determining the risk factors and assessing the prevention strategies for nursing intervention. Pediatr Nurs, 2011;37:9-15. 2. Kashetty MV, Patil S, Kumbhar S, Patil P. Prevalence of dental caries among 3–6-year-old Anganwadi children in Mudhol town, Karnataka, India. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent, 2016;14:403-408. 3. Manikam R, Perman JA. Pediatric feeding disorders. J Clin Gastroenterol, 2000;30:34-46. 4. Marchi M, Cohen P. Early childhood eating behaviours and adolescent eating disorders

References 1. Abrams S.H.: Detecting caries at the margin of restorations with the Canary System. Dental Tribune, 6, 14, 2012. 2. Braga M.M., Mendes F.M., Ekstrand K.R.: Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions. Dent. Clin. N. Am., 54: 479, 2010. 3. Chałas R. et al.: AC-impedance spectroscopy and caries detection. Curr. Issues Pharm. Med. Sci., 26, 344, 2013. 4. Chałas R. et al.: Usefulness of AC-impedance spectroscopy technique in occlusal caries detection - own investigations. Curr. Issues Pharm. Med. Sci., 26, 440, 2013. 5. Chu C

References 1. Popa, M.P., Bodnar, D. & Varlan, M.C. (2006). Manual de Odontoterapie Restauratoare, Ed. Univ. Carol Davila, Bucuresti. 2. Fox, C. (2010). Evidence summary: what do dentists mean by ‚prevention’ when applied to what they do in their practices? Br Dent J. 208(8), 359-363. doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2010.371. 3. Shanbhog, R., Godhi, B.S., Nandlal, B., Kumar, S.S., Raju, V. & Rashmi, S. (2013). Clinical consequences of untreated dental caries evaluated using PUFA index in orphanage children from India. J Int Oral Health. 5(5), 1-9.. 4. Filstrup, S