Urban demographictransition is a process that has been an object of analyses, even before being defined, since the beginning of 20 th century. In 1909, A. Landry published a work entitled Les trois théories principales de la population ( Three main theories on population ). By this title he meant that the new demographic regime consists of the third basic theory after those of T. R. Malthus More precisely, A. Landry analyses J. Townsend and his text A dissertation on the poor law (1786) and R. Cantillon Essai sur la Nature du Commerce en Général (Essay
Volodymyr G. Zinkovskyy, Olga V. Zhuk, Grzegorz Oloś, Robert Jabłecki and Maksym Zhuk
In this work is an attempt to mathematically prove the existence of the demographic transition taking into account one of its features, such as extension of human life dependent on the growth of the human population. Determined the functional form of this dependence, and the relationship between the probability of death, life expectancy, and social involving in the states of T (the influence of “traditional” values of concepts) and R (in the range of rules and possibilities of modern civilization).
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Afifi, A.A. & Clark, V. (1999). Computer-Aided Multivariate Analysis . Third ed., London: Chapman and Hall/CRC Press. 455p.
Allman, J. (1980). The demographictransition in the Middle East and North Africa. International Journal of Middle East Studies , 12(3): 277-301.
Bacher, J. (2002
Alejandro López González and María Jesús González-González
internal migration and the labor market impact of migration. In: The Journal of Human Resources , XLI(2): 221-258.
Carstensen, L. L. and Fried, L. P., 2011: The meaning of old age. In: Beard, J.R., Biggs, S. Bloom, D.E., Fried, L. P., Hogan, P., Kalache, A. and. Olshansky, S. J. (Eds.), Global population ageing: Peril or promise (Chapter 1). Geneva: World Economic Forum.
Cai, F., 2010: Demographictransition, demographic dividend, and Lervis turning point in China. In: China Economic Journal , 3(2): 107-119.
Canudas-Romo, V. and Gillot, M., 2015
Shapiro, D. (2015). “Accelerating Fertility Decline in Sub-Saharan Africa”. Population Horizons 12 (1): 3-12.
Shiffman, J., D. Berlan, and T. Hafner. (2009). “Has Aid for AIDS Raised All Health Funding Boats?” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 52 (Suppl. 1): S45-S48.
Tsui, A. O. (2001). “Population Policies, Family Planning Programs, and Fertility: The Record”. Population and Development Review 27 (Suppl.): 184-204.
Turbat, V. (2017). “The Demographic Dividend: A Potential Surplus Generated by a DemographicTransition”. In H. Groth and
The depopulation process in Bulgaria, especially in rural areas, is intensifying due to deepening unfavourable trends in the dynamics of demographic processes. Depopulation is a typical process in the fourth phase of demographic transition in rural areas of Bulgaria. The death rates exceed birth rates in the rural areas in the mid-1970s. The size of rural population and the number of villages in the country has been decreasing in the last decades. A large part of the villages were affected by depopulation processes during the period 1985-2007. A high depopulation level is observed in border and mountainous regions. The depopulation generates an array of different negative trends in the spatial aspect - in socio-economic development, technical and social infrastructure, as well as the erasure of many small villages. The regional development plans need to embed measures for infrastructural development in order to attract and retain residents, utilise natural and cultural-historical heritage, and to stimulate economic activities and the development of various types of tourism, etc.
Jadwiga Gałka, Sławomir Kurek and Mirosław Wójtowicz
CBOS, 2010: Postawy prokreacyjne Polakow (Procreative attitudes of Poles - in Polish), Komunikat z badań, 4, Warszawa.
Dyson, T., 2011: The Role of the DemographicTransition in the Process of Urbanization. In: Population and Development Review, Vol. 37 (1), pp. 34-54. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2011.00377.x
Felson, M. and Solaún, M., 1975: The fertility-inhibiting effect of crowded apartment-living in a tight housing market. In: The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 80 (6), pp. 1410-1427. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10
Declining fertility and rising life expectancy combined with migration are changing the demographic landscape of the MENA. Earlier high fertility will ensure a growing population in the next 20-30 years. Family structure is also changing: families are becoming smaller and increasingly nuclear, rather than extended. The region has to manage a young age structure and a gradual ageing of the population but with a potential weakening of the traditional inter-generational support based on family, it also faces a widely varying and heterogeneous resource base and socio-economic structure across the different countries. To maintain and improve inter-generational support within family and society in the MENA countries with large populations (such as Iran and Egypt) the most important challenges are poverty and vulnerability, unemployment, and development of long-term plans for an ageing population. These are inter-connected objectives since reducing poverty and increasing current employment could provide individuals and families with some resources to save and accumulate for old age. States in the region should put redistributive social policies in the areas of health, education and housing at the heart of a strategy of supporting family budgets and resources to assist them in their inter-generational care, but should also set up care and pension schemes to provide societal intergenerational support.
DemographicTransition’, Working Paper, No. 8685, Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research.
CAMARA, G. (2011), ‘Demographic Evolution of the Small Towns in the North-East Development Region in the Post-Communist Period’, Romanian Review of Regional Studies , 7 (2), pp. 105–110.
CAPLOW, T., HICKS, L. and WATTENBERG, B. J. (2001), The First Measured Century. An Illustrated Guide to Trends an America, 1900–2000 , Washington, D.C.: The AEI Press.
ČERMÁK, Z., HAMPL, M. and MÜLLER, J. (2009), ‘Contemporary Tendencies of Population Development of
Abla Mehio Sibai, Aline Semaan, Jiana Tabbara and Anthony Rizk
. and Beard, J.R. (2016a). Landscape of Research on Older Adults’ Health in the Arab Region: Is It Demography-Driven or Development-Dependent? Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 72(4): 680-687.
Sibai, A.M., Iskandarani, M., Darzi, A., Nakkash, R., Saleh, S., Fares, S. and Hwalla, N. (2016b). Cigarette smoking in a Middle Eastern country and its association with hospitalisation use: a nationwide cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. Doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009881.
Tabutin, D. and Schoumaker, B. (2011). The demographic