Additional witnesses containing fragments of Martin Hundsfeld and Andre Lignitzer’s dagger teachings were located. These teachings were part of other anonymous dagger texts. Five of Lignitzer’s plays and three Hundsfeld’s can be found in the works of Gregor Erhart (MS E.1939.65.354), Lienhart Sollinger (Cgm 3712) and Paulus Hector Mair (C.94, Codex 10825). A synoptic comparison of these witnesses with other representatives points to the existence of at least two other manuscripts – one that was base for Erhart and Sollinger, and the other being the base for Paulus Hector Mair’s works. Additionally, the analysis seems to suggest that the Proto-Erhart was based on the original proto-manuscript, not transmitted through other known sources. Interestingly, Erhart seems to be a faithful copy of its progenitor, even though it contains a very disorganized text, where dagger techniques are mixed with other weapons. The article contains transcriptions as well as updated stemmae codicum for these traditions.
The application of Trichoderma spp. for the suppression of plant-parasitic nematode populations is a promising tool in biological control. Sixteen strains of six Trichoderma species (T. atroviride, T. harzianum, T. rossicum, T. tomentosum, T. virens and T. asperellum) were tested in vitro in order to identify the most appropriate strains to control the dagger nematode Xiphinema index. Mortality assays revealed that the strains of the widely investigated T. harzianum species have caused significant reduction of X. index populations, although T. harzianum strains were not the most efficient among all the tested fungi. Certain T. virens and T. atroviride strains and T. rossicum have triggered faster and higher mortality. Generally, our data indicate that Trichoderma species have innate ability to decrease X. index population. Furthermore, as we had difficulties with maintaining X. index in vitro, we successfully used a newly developed method to keep X. index specimens viable during the experiments.
In numerous 15th and 16th century Fightbooks several sets of teachings appear alongside the glosses of Liechtenauer’s Epitome on armoured fighting and fighting on horseback (Harnischfechten and Rossfechten) often enough to be considered auctoritas on these subjects. However, their authorship from various witnesses are attributed to different authorial figures - Andreas Liegnitzer, Martin Hundsfeld, Jud Lew.
From 1452 until 1570, a number of diverse teachings are ascribed to them or faithfully reproduced without attribution: the most widely copied include the entitled Shortened sword for armoured hand and Shortened sword from the four guards, sword and buckler, dagger, wrestling and fighting on horseback. By a comparative analysis of existing witnesses, and by establishing the filiation tree of the related sources, we attempt to determine their original authorship. The analysis also yields additional conclusions regarding the influence of these authorial figures on other texts, proposes the filiation tree of the examined witnesses and presents the attempted study as a model for further research.
Introduction The genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 belonging to the family Longidoridae represents ectoparasitic root nematodes commonly known as the dagger nematode. There are approximately 260 nominal species in the genus to date ( Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez et al ., 2012 ). They are typically divided into two groups, namely X. americanum -group with about 50 species and non- X. americanum -group ( Loof & Luc, 1990 ; Lamberti et al ., 2000 ). The genus Xiphinema includes phytopathogenic species that damage a large number of wild and cultivated plants through direct
In this paper I will describe the adventurous history of an important late medieval German fechtbuch—a fighting manual—that belongs to a number of manuscripts known as the Gladiatoria group. In the beginning, the extent and the characteristics of this group of codices are explained; later on I will deal with one specific specimen that formerly belonged to a library in Germany—the Herzogliche Bibliothek in Gotha—from where it vanished during or after World War II. Until quite recently this manuscript was believed to be lost. I was able to identify a Gladiatoria manuscript from the Yale Center for British Art in New Haven, Connecticut, as that missing manuscript. The article presents a detailed description of the manuscript; it follows the path of the many places the codex passed through from the days of its creation until the present time; it offers a thorough line of argument that proves on one hand that the manuscript from New Haven is in fact identical to the one that disappeared from Gotha, and that verifies on the other hand an assumption by the renowned researcher Hans-Peter Hils that it is identical to yet another believed-to-be-lost manuscript that was sold by auction in Heidelberg in the 1950s and 1960s as single leaves; and finally it makes an attempt to reconstruct the original structure of the manuscript after it had been pulled apart.
The quon algebra is an approach to particle statistics in order to provide a theory in which the Pauli exclusion principle and Bose statistics are violated by a small amount. The quons are particles whose annihilation and creation operators obey the quon algebra which interpolates between fermions and bosons. In this paper we generalize these models by introducing a deformation of the quon algebra generated by a collection of operators ai,k, (i, k) ∈ ℕ* × [m], on an infinite dimensional vector space satisfying the deformed q-mutator relations We prove the realizability of our model by showing that, for suitable values of q, the vector space generated by the particle states obtained by applying combinations of ai,k’s and ‘s to a vacuum state |0〉 is a Hilbert space. The proof particularly needs the investigation of the new statistic cinv and representations of the colored permutation group.
Due to the complex, unique, multiple demands they exert on the human body through the skills, competences and abilities, they develop as well as by contributing to the development of motor skills, fighting sports represent an effective way of preparing the military to respond to the rigors imposed by the modern war. The strikes with arms and with auxiliary equipment (light weapons, bayonets, raffles, daggers or small shovels) are part of the basic techniques used in close fight, which, if well-mastered, developed and perfected, contribute to the success of the battle.
The Neapolitan school of fencing, which received official sanction after the reunification of Italy in the nineteenth century, originated in the seventeenth century. It was originally best known as a system of sword and dagger fencing. It is documented as such in both Italian and Spanish sources during the reign of Carlos II and the War of the Spanish Succession (1665-1714). This article discusses the evidence from both sets of sources during this period, comparing and contrasting the Neapolitan approach to previous, contemporary and subsequent approaches in order to provide the necessary historical context for its origin and development.
 Barsi, L. (1989): The Longidoridae (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) in Yugoslavia. I. Nematol. Medit., 17: 97–108  Barsi, L. (1996): New records of Xiphinema dentatum Sturhan (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) from Serbia with description of the male. Nematol. Medit., 24: 73–78  Kumari, S., Decraemer, W. (2008): First report of the dagger nematode Xiphinema dentatum (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in a deciduous forest in the Czech Republic. Plant Dis., 92: 1370 http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-92-9-1370B  Lišková, M. (1994): First record of Xiphinema dentatum Sturhan, 1978
in Katta-Kurgan district of the Uzbeck SSE. Tr Uzbekskistan Gos. University , 12: 1-25. Tzortzakakis, E.A., Peneva, V., Terzakis, M., Neilson, R. and Brown, D.J.F. 2001. Longidorus cretensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from a vineyard infected with a foliar ‘yellow mosaic’ on Crete, Greece. Systematic Parasitology , 48: 131-139. Tzortzakakis, E.A., Archidona-Yuste, A., Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C., Nasiou, E., Lazanaki, M.S., Kabourakis, E.M., Palomares-Rius, J.E. and Castillo, P. 2014. Integrative diagnosis and molecular phylogeny of dagger and needle