Search Results

1 - 10 of 21 items :

Clear All
Public Services between the Citizen’s Need and the Possibilities of the Administration

Abstract

This paper aims at the balance between the citizen and the public authorities with public services as an interface. Public services place themselves at the crossroads of many elements such as: needs of the citizen, social need, public will, public resources, private availability, and civic sense. Without claiming to have identified all factors that converge to defining / structuring the public services (PS) / services of general interest (SGI), the paper tried to highlight some of the most important.

The social need is covered at the macro level and it represents what society - as a whole - needs. Citizens’ needs are more specific, individualized and custom-designed, rundown by gender, age, education, social condition, financial strength, religion, living environment etc. The public will is an expression of what the Administration encompasses in mid- and long-term national strategies and addresses in detail the PS / SGI in sectorial policies where responsibility is assumed. Public resources include in our assessment all resources at the disposal of the Administration at some point. Private availability can be expressed through various forms such as public-private partnerships, development of complementary private sponsorships, donations etc.

A balanced public service can also benefit of citizens’ civic sense. Even if they are completely satisfied with the services at hand they understand that it would be without sense to unnecessary ask for them just only because it’s free.

Open access
Gender Differences and Other Findings on the Cognitive Reflection Test

Abstract

Intelligence is the traditional element of interest when measuring the human cognitive abilities. However, intelligence is complex and researchers are constantly finding new angles of looking at it. One such angle is reflective reasoning. Sometimes individuals choose to override the intuitive answer and by engaging in further reflection they reach the correct answer. The cognitive reflection test (CRT) measures a person’s ability to suppress their incorrect intuitive answer in favor of reflection that should then lead to the correct response. The test contains three short mathematically based problems, which measure, among others, cognitive ability, mathematical abilities and cognitive reflection. Using a sample of 195 students from a state university, one of the largest universities in Romania, we explore the extent to which a variety of phenomena and trends identified by previous findings on CRT show similar results on our sample.

Open access
The Behaviour of Tourism Market Participants in the Context of the Development of Ecotourism

Abstract

This article considers the influence of ecotourism, a fast-developing form of tourism, on an important area in the functioning of the tourism market, which is the behaviour of its participants. The aim of the article is to present the way in which the developing concept and principles of ecotourism can affect the behaviour of consumers (tourists) and the activity of tour operators (providers of tourism services). The authors propose a unique research approach which consist in addressing both the expectations on the part of tourists as well as those related to business targets of the tourism industry. This article presents conceptual framework and outlines methodical approach which can be useful for the future research. Twelve types of behaviour regarding both tourists and tour operators were distinguished, followed by a description of the character of the possible influence of ecotourism on each of them. In this way the article also presents an outline of a new approach to managing business (including market relations), taking into consideration the growing popularity and importance of ecotourism.

Open access
Hypothetical bias and framing effect in the valuation of private consumer goods

Abstract

In a laboratory experiment, I examined two behavioural effects: hypothetical bias and the framing effect. I elicited willingness to pay (WTP) for a cosmetic product, and manipulated framing conditions (positive vs. negative attribute framing) and incentives to reveal the actual valuation (hypothetical vs. real). I demonstrated that hypothetical bias has a significant impact on WTP values; however, the framing effect has no effect on the valuation of the product. Similarly, I found no interaction between the two effects. This observation contributes to claims that hypothetical research methods lead to equally reliable data as those based on consequential choices.

Open access
Consumer Trust in E-Commerce: The Case of Poland

Abstract

The increasing use of the Internet as a commercial sales channel arouses interest in understanding key issues in building customer relationships. Confidence is considered the key to the success of building these relationships. Considering the differences between online and offline sales, the antecedents and consequences of trust deserve a reconsideration. This research identifies satisfaction and knowledge as key factors related to trust in the context of online sales. The findings from this study suggest that people buy online more often if they see a higher level of trust in e-commerce and have more experience in using the web. Customer satisfaction can be influenced by the level of trust as well as the user’s experience and knowledge about the distribution channel as well as the e-seller. It seems that people with a higher level of satisfaction with shopping become loyal customers and more often participate in e-commerce. Positive experience and the ability to monitor purchases favors the development of the e-commerce market in Poland. These results complement earlier arrangements for e-commerce and shed light on how to establish a trust relationship on the World Wide Web.

Open access
A Discrepancy Between “What Should You Choose?” and “What Do You Choose?” in Intertemporal and Risky Decision-Making

Abstract

Purpose: When facing important decisions, people often ask themselves “What should I choose?” This question may involve intertemporal and risky decisions. The aim of our study was to test a potential discrepancy between the normative and descriptive perspective, that is, between “What should you choose?” and “What do you choose?”.

Methodology: In this study we assessed the rate of delay and probability discounting of 236 participants. The design was a 2 (“choose”/”should choose”) × 2 (small/large) × 5 (delays or probabilities) factorial design in delay and probability discounting.

Findings: People are less impulsive when taking the normative perspective than when they take the descriptive one. This phenomenon occurs in relation to large payoffs. However taking the normative rather than descriptive perspective makes no difference in risky decisions.

Research limitations: In further research it would be beneficial to study real outcomes as choice consequences and to control for variables that might moderate the impact of our manipulation, such as addictions.

Implications: The manipulation with the perspective may be applied not only in financial decision making. Our results may find a practical implementation to help impulsive people make more sensible decisions.

Originality: We demonstrated the internal conflict between the descriptive and normative mode in delay discounting decision making.

Open access
The consumer explained from the perspective of the extended self

Abstract

Although the extended self is a relatively new concept, over the years it has developed rapidly, being the subject of study of several marketing researches. Our possessions contribute to reflecting our identity, so it is very important to look at how people expand their self in relation to others and how possessions become part of themselves. We can not hope to understand the behavior of consumers without first gaining a certain understanding of the attention they give to their possessions. The main findings until now show that certain objects accelerate the interest of the consumer for the actual consumption, because the consumption helps define people about what they are. Our aim is to deepen this idea through a survey.

Open access
Managerial Discretion and Constraints: A Bounded Leadership Model

Abstract

Purpose: We propose and test a new leadership model. Our model is an extension of the leaderplex model which proposes that leader cognitive and social complexities are linked with leader effectiveness indirectly, in a mediation scheme, through behavioral complexity. We enhance the leader-plex model with a leader’s degree of managerial discretion as the moderator of the links in this mediation format.

Methodology: We test our model with a moderated mediation approach (Baron-Kenny four-step procedure and Preacher-Hayes bootstrapping methods).

Findings: We use results of interviews with top leaders in Poland and demonstrate that a leader’s managerial discretion is a moderator affecting the mediation scheme assumed in the leaderplex model.

Limitations: The sample size is only 29 leaders. To preserve the respondents’ anonymity, their opinions were evaluated by only one researcher who interviewed them directly. The results may be country specific (Poland).

Originality: We define new boundary conditions for the leaderplex model by showing importance of a leader’s real position (managerial discretion) in an organization. Specifically, we show that the nature of the relationships between the variables of interest will change when a leader operates in one physical environment (e.g., high managerial discretion) rather than another (e.g., low managerial discretion).

Open access
The Impact of Decision-Making Profiles on the Consistency of Rankings Obtained by Means of Selected Multiple Criteria Decision-Aiding Methods

Abstract

The paper discusses the impact of the decision-making profiles on the consistency of rankings obtained by three multiple criteria methods, i.e. DR, AHP and TOPSIS. The online decision making experiment was organized, based on an electronic questionnaire which is a hybrid of the internet survey system and the decision support system. The participants of the experiment were 418 students of Polish universities. To describe the decision-making profile, the REI test was used which allows to distinguish two decision-making styles: rational and intuitive. The Kendall rank correlation coefficient was used to test the consistency of the rankings obtained by the considered methods. Using different grouping methods, the relationship between the decision profile and the ability to express one’s preferences by means of these methods, that differ in cognitive requirements, was examined. The results of the research may be helpful for supporting the decision-maker in decision processes by choosing the method that fits their profile best.

Open access
Involuntary Unemployment in a Neoclassical Growth Model with Public Debt and Human Capital

Abstract

Even more than eight decades since the publication of Keynes’ “General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money” modern macroeconomists disagree on the notion of “underemployment equilibrium” with so-called “involuntary unemployment”. While the majority of macro theorists trace involuntary unemployment back to frictions and rigidities in the adaptation of wages and output prices to market imbalances, a minority position holds that even under perfectly flexible output prices and wage rates involuntary unemployment might occur. Morishima in “Walras’ Economics” and more recently Magnani presume that contrary to the majority view aggregate investment is not perfectly flexible but governed by “animal spirits” of investors. The aim of the present paper is to integrate the Morishima-Magnani approach into a Diamond-type overlapping generations’ (OLG) model with internal public debt subsequently extended by human capital accumulation. It turns out that in spite of perfectly flexible real wage and interest rate involuntary unemployment occurs in intertemporal general equilibrium when aggregate investor sentiments are too pessimistic regarding the rentability of investment in real capital. In the model extended by human capital a higher public debt to output ratio decreases unambiguously involuntary unemployment, if initially the endogenous output growth rate is higher than the real interest rate.

Open access