The Polish energy market gained its competitive character in late 1990s. At that time in majority of European countries a new law was enacted (in Poland – in 1987), which enabled the creation of internal energy markets. The Polish Power Exchange has been functioning since the end of 1999. However, from the very onset it has constituted a vital component of under grounding liberalization of electricity market. Since it was created the Polish Power Exchange has served as a market mechanism for setting objective energy market price. Support and control of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority guarantee the security of concluded transactions. The spot energy market was created as the first one and has functioned according to the rule of the double auction. The model of Sadrieh will be used for the description of the auction rules applied to the spot energy trade on the Polish Power Exchange. Furthermore, an algorithm on the basis of which it is possible to forecast transaction prices is presented. The effectiveness of this algorithm will be compared with other traditional methods of forecasting transaction prices.
This paper deals with selected theoretical issues pertaining to the setting of asking prices by housing developers. Determinants of the buyer’s and seller’s reservation prices have been identified. The advantages and disadvantages, in terms of behavioral economics, of the pricing strategies practiced by housing developers have been indicated. The strategy based on fixing an asking price roughly equal to the estimated market value of the property was compared with the strategy based on offering an inflated asking price (with the assumption of price negotiations). A second comparison concerned the strategy of price disclosure compared with the strategy of price non-disclosure.
The reflections contained within the article were based on behavioral economics and marketing theory. The discussion was based largely on foreign articles, observed examples of pricing policy carried out by housing developers in Poland, and information obtained from housing developers and real estate brokers who are active on the primary market.
In this paper non-convexity in economics has been revisited. Shapley-Folkman-Lyapunov theorem has been tested with the asymmetric auctions where bidders follow log-concave probability distributions (non-convex preferences). Ten standard statistical distributions have been used to describe the bidders’ behavior. In principle what is been tested is that equilibrium price can be achieved where the sum of large number non-convex sets is convex (approximately), so that optimization is possible. Convexity is thus very important in economics.
.  Ţ Ălu Ş., Micro and nanoscale characterization of three dimensional surfaces. Basics and applications, Napoca Star Publishing House, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 2015.  A rman A., Ţ Ălu Ş., L una C., A hmadpourian A., N aseri M., M olamohammadi M., J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron., 26 (2015), 9630.  Ţ Ălu Ş., S tach S., M endez A., T rejo G., T alu M., J. Electrochem. Soc., 161 (2013), D44.  N aseri N., S olaymani S., G haderi A., B ramowicz M., K ulesza S., Ţ Ălu Ş., P ourreza M., G hasemi S., RSC Adv., 7(21) (2017), 12923. [22
.  Interes państwa a prawo do nazwiska w świetle prawa międzynarodowego i 30 unijnego, Rocznik Stowarzyszenia Naukowców Polaków Litwy, No. 13/14. Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych  Raport o sytuacji Polonii i Polaków za granicą 2012, http://www.msz.gov.pl/resource/d44dcd91-ed03-4e64-a475-b56dbece5a46:JCR [Accessed on: 27 December 2017]. Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Lithuania  National minorities, https://lrkm.lrv.lt/en/activities/national-minorities [Accessed on: 21 December 2017]. Naumova K.  Legal aspects of transcription of personal
-L. Guillaume, R. Lambiotte, E. Lefebvre, Fast unfolding of communities in large networks, Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment 10 (2008) P10008 ⇒ 91  S. Carani, Yu. L Dokshitzer, M. H. Seymour, B. R. Webher, Longitudinally-invariant k ⊥ -clustering algorithms for hadron-hadron collisions, Nuclear Physics B 406 (1993) 187–224. ⇒ 91  I. Csabai, F. Czakó, Z. Fodor, Quark- and gluon-jet separations using neural networks, Phys. Rev. D44 7 (1991) R1905–R1908. ⇒ 94  T. Davis, Y. Hu, The University of Florida Sparse Matrix Collection, Mathematical
. Primary gastric lymphoma of MALT: considerations of pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy.Can J Gastroenterol. Nov 2000;14 Suppl D:44D-50D. [Medline]. 35. Fock KM, Katelaris P, Sugano K, et al. Second Asia- Pacific Consensus Guidelines for Helicobacter pylori infection.F J Gastroenterol Hepatol. Oct 2009;24(10) :1587-600. [Medline]. 36. Freston JW. Management of peptic ulcers: emerging issues. World J Surg. Mar 2000;24(3):250-5.[Medline]. 37. Garcia-Altes A, Rota R, Barenys M, et al. Costeffectiveness of a ‘score and scope’ strategy for the management of dyspepsia. Eur J