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References 1. Abdullah, A. G. K., Almadhoun, T. Z., Ling, Y. L. (2015). Organizational Empowerment and Commitment: The Mediating Effect of Psychological Empowerment // Asian Journal of Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities. Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 1–7. 2. Abraham, R. (2000). Organizational Cynicism: Bases and Consequences // Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs. Vol. 126, No. 3, pp. 269–292. 3. Abugre, J. A. (2017) Relations at Workplace, Cynicism and Intention to Leave: A Proposed Conceptual Framework for Organisations // International Journal of

5. References Abraham, R. (2000). Organizational cynicism: Bases and consequences. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs , 126(3). Andersson, L. M. (1996). Employee cynicism: An examination using a contract violation framework. Human Relations , 49(11). Bartunek, J.M., Rousseau, D.M., Rudolph, J.M. & DePalma, J.A. (2006). On the receiving end: Sensemaking, emotion and assessment of an organizational change initiated by others. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science , 42, 182-206. Beer, M. and Nohria, N.,2000, Cracking the code of change

References Abraham, R. (2000) Organizational cynicism: bases and consequences. Genetic, social and general psychology monographs, 126 (3). Agocs, C. and Burr, C. (1996) Employment equity, affirmative action and managing diversity: assessing the differences. International journal of manpower, 17 (4/5). Alas, R. & Mousa, M. (2016) Cultural diversity and business hospital’ curricula: a case from Egypt. Problems and perspectives in management, 14 (2) (cont.-1): 130–136. Alas, R. & Mousa, M. (2016) Organizational culture and workplace spirituality . International

York & Köln: Brill. DROBNER, H. R. (2011): Patrologie: Úvod do studia starokřesťanské literatury [ Patrology: Introduction into early Christian literature ]. Praha: OIKOYMENH. FLACHBARTOVÁ, L. (2015): Diogenovský kynizmus ako spôsob života [ Diogenes’ Cynicism as way of life ]. Prešov: Filozofická fakulta Prešovskej univerzity. HADOT, P. (2004): What is ancient philosophy? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. KRUEGER, D. (1993): Diogenes the Cynic among the fourth century Fathers. In: Vigiliae Christianae , 47(1), pp. 29–49. OBERHAUS, M. (1991): Gregor

Book Review Defending Science – Within Reason: Between Scientism and Cynicism, by Susan Hack Derek Turner Connecticut College Disputatio Vol. 1, No. 17 November 2004 DOI: 10.2478/disp-2004-0014 ISSN: 0873-626X © 2004 Turner. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License Book Reviews 84 Ideal Code, Real World resulta numa combinação rara de concisão, acessibilidade e inovação científica. Em virtude das duas primeiras características, o livro pode ser utilizado


Dynamics of professional burnout - a comparative analysis considering the key sectors in Poland, part II The article is a continuation of the study presented in the text entitled: „Professional burnout - a comparative analysis considering the selected sectors in Poland”. Management. University of Zielona Góra, Faculty of Economics and Management, Vol. 16, No.2., (p. 87 - 102). The authors present the results of the second part of the research on analysing the phenomenon of burnout among employees of the major sectors in Poland. The present material relates to the results of the re-test conducted after the nine-month interval. One again the cause-effect dependency models for the verified variables were presented for all the tested employed people and separately for each of the specified sectors. The most relevant applicable conclusions resulted from the implemented research projected were formulated.

attributes are characteristics of a concept that appear frequently and help differentiate it from other similar or related concepts. 6 After examining and synthesizing the literature comprehensively, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization (cynicism), and low personal accomplishment (inefficacy) were determined to be the defining attributes of burnout. Each is discussed below. The first attribute is emotional exhaustion which is a common thread present in the multidisciplinary perspectives and is the essential component and the most apparent manifestation of burnout. It


Professional burnout - a comparative analysis considering the key sectors in Poland The article presents the results of empirical research referring to the problem of burnout caused by professional burnout among staff of the most significant sectors in Poland. The authors presents the first part of the research project which also covered re-examination conducted after the interval of nine months. The research focused at the search for predictors of the phenomenon of burnout which - according to the latest concept of Maslach and Leiter - are as follows: emotional exhaustion, cynicism ad a reduced sense of personal achievements. With the application of neural networks, both the impact of organisational factors (organisational climate, experience of organisational stress) as well as personality-based factors onto the presence of professional burnout was verified. The main application conclusions resulted from the first stage of the research were presented at the end of the article.


The objective of this study was to determine employees’ perceptions across National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Divisions I, II, and III athletic departments of the following general categories and their respective subcategories: (a) emotional intelligence consisting of appraisal of emotions, optimism, utilization of emotions, social skills, and emotional exhaustion; (b) commitment consisting of affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment; and (c) burnout outcomes consisting of exhaustion, and cynicism. The literature offers broad perspectives related to burnout, commitment, and emotional intelligence along with the respective subcategories (; ; ; ; ). An intercollegiate sport centered questionnaire was developed by the researchers, the content of which was grounded in seminal research studies related to emotional intelligence, commitment, and burnout outcomes. Feedback from five experts who held no less than 15 years of working experience in an NCAA athletic department helped support content validity. The questionnaire consisted of a demographic section followed by a 7 point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree, that included 49 total statements. Electronic mail was used to send the questionnaire to a random sample of 333 athletic department employees whose e-mail addresses were obtained from the publicly accessible National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics’ (NACDA) National Directory of College Athletics. Of the 333 surveys mailed, 82 were returned for a 24.6% response rate. Descriptive statistics was applied to the data to arrive at findings related to athletic department employees’ responses to the subcategories of the general categories related to burnout, commitment, and emotional intelligence. Athletic department employees were found to generally agree. Overall, responses by the athletic department employees indicated perceptions related to each of three categories of emotional exhaustion, commitment and burnout outcomes that are favorable to the well-being of the athletic department.


One of the most important paradigm shifts in the history of Greek philosophy was the ‘rediscovery’ of transcendence in the movement of Intermediate Platonism. Less than a century before the birth of Hellenism (late 4th century BC), Plato had advocated an intentional preoccupation with the life of the mind / soul, encouraging the individual to avoid being entrapped in the material limitations of life and instead discover its transcendental dimension. The conquest of Athens by the Macedonians, followed by the invasion of the Orient by Alexander the Great, set in motion sociological and cultural changes that challenged the relevance of Platonic philosophy. The transcendental vision of Platonism left the individual still struggling to find happiness in the world created by Alexander the Great. This was the context in which the schools the of Cynicism, Stoicism, Epicureanism and Skepticism challenged Platonism with their call to happiness in this world and by means of the Hellenistic dominance and the rise of Roman supremacy stirred a renewed spiritual and philosophical effort to rediscover the world beyond; that is, the transcendental world of Plato. This was Middle Platonism and the Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria was one of its most prolific writers. In this paper, we will examine the concept of the soul in the writings of Philo, with an emphasis on the role that the soul plays in the act of approaching God through the means of the external / material cult (Temple, sacrifices, priests, etc.). Philo offers a complex vision of the soul, one that remains critically relevant to understanding the Greek, Jewish, and Christian thought that emerged after Philo.