Constitution and the decision-making rule for the Council of Ministers of the EU - Looking for alternative solution’, European Integration online Papers (EIoP), VIII(12): 1-13. · Pollack, Mark A. and Shaffer Gregory C., 2008, ‘Risk regulation, GMOs and the limits of deliberation’ in Naurin Daniel & Hellen Wallace (eds), Unveiling the CounciloftheEuropeanUnion. Games governments play in Brussels, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 144-164. · Protocol (No 36) on Transitional Provisions, OJ 2012, C 326. · Regulation (EU) No 1260/2013 of the European Parliament and of the
References · Aus Jonathan P., 2010, ‘The Mechanisms of Consensus: Coming to Agreement on Community Asylum Policy’, in Daniel Naurin and Helen Wallace (eds), Unveiling the CounciloftheEuropeanUnion. Games Governments Play in Brussels, Palgrave, Basingstoke, 99-118. · Beyers Jan, 2010, ‘Conceptual and Methodological Challenges in the Study of European Socialization’, Journal of European Public Policy, XVII(6): 909-920. · Beyers Jan and Dierickx Guido, 1998, ‘The working groups of the CounciloftheEuropeanUnion: supranational or intergovernmental negotiations
Interim Assessment, ’ West European Politics , vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1256-1273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2013.826029 Drieskens, E. (2011), ‘Ceci n'est pas une présidence: the 2010 Belgian presidency of the EU, ’ Journal of Common Market Studies , vol. 49, Issue Supplement s1, pp. 91-102. EC (1999), Helsinki European Council Declaration , Document of the CounciloftheEuropeanUnion, SN/300/99, 10-11.12.2003. — (2002), Seville European Council Presidency Conclusions , Document of the CounciloftheEuropeanUnion, 13463/02, 24.10.2002. — (2009a), European
Estonia held the presidency of the Council of the European Union for six months from 1 July to 31 December 2017. This was a great opportunity to strengthen and shape the country image, also known as the country brand. They do have something to build on: there have been very few countries in recent years and decades where country branding was so conscious. It was a brave choice: in the early 2000s, they decided that they would become E-Estonia. This is not just a means to communicate but also involves policies and tangible developments regarding electronics, IT, and brand new technologies in order to build the most advanced digital society of Europe and the world.
But how did this appear during the EU Presidency and how are Estonian citizens involved in branding? This rather lengthy case study explores the concept as a good practice, also setting an example for other countries.
Introduction: Bulgaria joined European Union (EU) on 1 January 2007. Since the accession all regulations, directives, decisions, recommendations, and opinions of the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission are being implemented.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to present the morbidity of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) and acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Bulgaria before and after accession to the EU.
Materials and methods: A retrospective study was performed. The morbidity of acute HBV and acute HCV infections in Bulgaria was analyzed over a period of sixteen years (2000−2016). The collected data were based on the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (NCIPD) and the National Center of Public Health and Analyses (NCPHA).
Results: Between 2000 and 2016, 11038 cases of acute HBV infection and 1681 cases of acute HCV infection were reported in Bulgaria. Before the accession to EU, the morbidity rates of acute HBV and acute HCV infections were 12.77 cases per 100 000 population (95% CI: 11.45–13.97) and 1.52 cases per 100 000 population (95% CI: 1.17–1.96), respectively. After the accession to the EU, the morbidity rates of acute HBV and acute HCV infections were 5.29 cases per 100 000 population (95% CI: 3.86–6.73) and 1.14 cases per 100 000 population, respectively.
Conclusion: Analysis of the data suggests that there is a tendency for lower morbidity rates of acute HBV. The situation with acute HCV is relatively stable over the years regardless of EU membership.
The title of this research is “The debtor’s property selling in the cross-border insolvency proceedings”. The insolvency proceeding gets the cross-border status also in case, if a debtor is an owner of the property outside of the main interests’ centre, namely, in another country. Therefore, there are many problematic cases when insolvency administrator (also called insolvency practitioner) defines the real estate in this other country and has to make a decision concerning the methods of selling the real estate in accordance with the law of the Member State in which territory the insolvency proceedings have been started. At the same time, the administrator shall provide that the property is sold in particular with regard to procedures for the realization of assets defined in the legislation of that country, where such real estate has been located. The article’s aim is to give a view of the features of the sale of the property in the insolvency proceedings and to define the possible lack and improvements in the cross-border insolvency concerning the selling of a debtor’s property. The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union has adopted Regulation (EU) 2015/848 of 20 May 2015 on Insolvency proceedings, which shall apply from 26 June 2017, with some exceptions Despite the regulation of the cross-border insolvency has been improved, the procedure of the property disposal is still incomplete in the cross-border insolvency proceedings. Within the study the following research methods are applied: the analytical method, comparative method, sociological method and descriptive method. The predicted value of the research is theoretical and also practical. The research should be useful for the insolvency proceedings administrators, the companies and the banks, other experts involved in the cross-border insolvency proceedings, as well as for students to improve their theoretical knowledge about the cross-border insolvency.
The Role of EU Law and Christian Values in Preserving National Identity in the Context of Globalisation
The aim of this article is to analyse how in the globalisation process small nations appear in danger of disappearing. Can law protect national identity when the state is in the European Union?
Globalisation together with the economic interests of states touches other spheres of society: national internal policy, education, mass media, the policy of family, migration. The birth rate in families in such big nations as Germany, France, and Italy is small. If numerous Italians, French, Polish, and Russians are worried about the constantly decreasing number of their inhabitants, no doubt that small nations are in danger of assimilation.
The European Union is an unprecedented formation of law: states retain their independence and at the same time people by their free will limit the sovereignty of a state. The 57th Article of the EU Constitution clearly states that "the Law of the Union is higher than the national [law]." It is as if the European States are united in the form of a federation, though the concept of a federation state cannot be applied strictly. The first condition for each new candidate state is to be a democratic and law-based state. The law-based state means legal elections, authorities elected by the people, separation of three state functions (legislative, executive and judicial), respect for human rights, protection of the rights of national and religious minorities. Good relations with neighbours are always appreciated. The new EU constitution contains 400 pages. The Constitutional Agreement or EU Constitution was approved by the Council of the European Union in June of 2004. Each state ratifies the Agreement. Some EU countries plan the referendums. The Parliament of Lithuania refused the referendum. It was planned that the Agreement will come into force in 2009. The Constitution of the EU requires that the National Governments of Member States will not interfere in implementing the aims of the Union. The 58th Article deals with loyalty to the Union. The institutions established by the EU work with human points of view and have a society model which is supported by the majority of the citizens.
In this article an attempt will also be made to evaluate the role of Christianity and its values for the legal system of the EU as well as for preserving national identity.
Članek obravnava problematiko odgovornosti za škodo, ki nastane kot posledica napake izdelka in povzroči smrt, telesno poškodbo ali okvari bolnikovo zdravje. Hiter razvoj znanosti je tudi v medicini omogočil razvoj novih izdelkov in tehnologij, ki vzbujajo pri bolnikih velika pričakovanja po bolj učinkovitem zdravljenju. Vendar pa nove tehnologije s seboj prinašajo tudi tveganje za nastanek poškodb zaradi morebitnih napak. Standardi kakovosti in varnosti izdelkom slabe kakovosti sicer preprečujejo dostop na trg, vendar pa t. i. varnostne norme ne morejo preprečiti napak in nevarnosti, ki jih zaradi omejenosti znanja ne moremo predvideti. Zato do poškodb in z njimi povezanih stroškov kljub vsemu prihaja. V prispevku natančno opredeljujemo, kdo naj nosi nepredvidljive stroške: bolnišnica, proizvajalec, bolnik ali preko socializacije tveganja družba kot celota. Gre za zapleten sistem ekonomske razporeditve tveganja poškodb, ki skuša uravnovesiti željo po učinkovitosti ob upoštevanju nepredvidljivih nevarnosti izdelka. Opredeljujemo pojme, ki so ključni za razumevanje problematike: proizvajalec, potrošnik, bolnik, izdelek in napaka. Največ pozornosti namenjamo sistemu odgovornosti za škodo, ki ga uvaja Direktiva Sveta Evropske Unije 85/374 o odgovornosti za brezhibnost izdelka. Direktiva uvaja sistem, ki ob sprejemu pravil v nacionalno zakonodajo dopušča pravnopolitične prilagoditve. V prispevku analiziramo sistem razporeditve škode in ga skušamo orisati s ključnimi primeri iz prakse sodišč Evropske unije.
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