Introduction: In the light of constant pressure for minimizing healthcare costs we made a cost-minimization analysis comparing invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV) as treatment for hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF).
Aim: The primary objective was to estimate the direct medical costs generated by a patient on IMV and NIV. A secondary objective was to identify which aspect of the treatment was most expensive.
Material and Methods: This is a single center retrospective study including 36 patients on mechanical ventilation due to hypoxemic ARF, separated in two groups – NIV (n = 18) and IMV (n = 18). We calculated all direct medical costs in Euro and compared them statistically.
Results: On admission the PaO2/FiO2 and SAPS II score were comparable in both groups. We observed a significant difference in the costs per patient for drug treatment (NIV: 616.07; IQR: 236.68, IMV:1456.18; IQR:1741.95, p = 0.005), consumables (NIV: 16.47; IQR: 21.44, IMV: 98.79; IQR: 81.52, p < 0.001) and diagnostic tests (NIV: 351; IQR: 183.88, IMV: 765.69; IQR: 851.43, p < 0.001). We also computed the costs per patient per day and there was a significant difference in the costs in all above listed categories. In both groups the highest costs were for drug treatment – around 61%.
Conclusions: In the setting of hypoxemic ARF NIV reduces significantly the direct medical costs of treatment in comparison to IMV. The decreased costs in NIV are not associated with severity of disease according to the respiratory quotient and SAPS II score.
Most of the people living in developing or less developed countries have limited earning to provide somehow their basic needs & usual staff. Carrying goods is a regular task in life & several products have been invented to minimize efforts in this purpose. But the product’s price & features are not optimum for the people of fewer earnings. Stair climbing cart is very useful for those houses where a lift is not available and goods have to be carried frequently upstairs. In this research, the mechanical design has been modified so that the manufacturing cost can be minimized. Finite element analysis has been performed upon the design to find out how the manufacturing cost can be reduced by making the design optimal for manufacturing cost and process. The result shows that the structural members should not be processed further because any tooling operation will require an extra machine as well as an extra cost. Only the wheels are possible to subject under optimization by reducing material as well as weight. This article will be a valuable asset for the mass manufacturers of this type of product.
The problem of the optimal distribution of production tasks within a large business entity (a concern, a corporation) is discussed in this paper. The fundamental aim is to determine such a distribution of production tasks that minimizes total production costs. For this purpose the author proposes an approach that takes into account Lagrange multipliers. The author formulates the conditions for the application of such an approach and the option of its possible application in practice.
This model optimizes port hinterland intermodal refrigerated container flows, considering both cost and quality degradation, which is distinctive from the previous literature content in a way that it quantifies the influence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in different setting temperature on intermodal network planning. The primary contribution of this paper is that the model is beneficial not only to shippers and customers for the novel service design, but also offer, for policy-makers of the government, insights to develop inland transport infrastructures in consideration of intermodal transportation. The majority of models of multimodal system have been established with an objective of cost minimization for normal commodities. As the food quality is possible to be influenced by varying duration time required for the storage and transportation, and transportation accompanied with refrigeration producing more CO2 emission, this paper aims to address cost minimization and quality degradation minimization within the constraint of CO2 footprint. To achieve this aim, we put the quality degradation model in a mixed-integer linear programming model used for intermodal network planning for cold chain. The example of Dalian Port and Yingkou Port offer insight into trade-offs between transportation temperature and transport mode considering CO2 footprint. Furthermore, the model can offer a useful reference for other regions with the demand for different imported food, which requires an uninterrupted cold chain during the transportation and storage.
This study tests whether decentralized leadership influences the efficiency of running selected cultural institutions, specifically museums in the Czech Republic. For the analysis, data from 2015 from 187 museums spread around the whole Czech Republic are used. The method for the evaluation of efficiency is data envelope analysis, and for identifying the influence of decentralized leadership, a regression analysis is used. Museums established by municipalities reach higher efficiency than museums established by regions and central government. The causes may be found in the ability to better estimate the local demand as well as in the rational behavior of municipalities that prefer a cost-minimization strategy. The benefits of decentralization cannot be seen only in the field of finance but also in reinforcing local traditions, trust and the effects of social capital that is generated by a strong regional cultural identity.
We need a better transport planning tool for loading maximization and transport cost minimization on the voyage route with multiple loading/unloading (discharging) ports. The implemented heuristic algorithm is able to find out an appropriate routing sequence with maximal earnings and profit. In the same time it looks for minimal loading/discharging and transshipment costs, but with fulfillment of cargo demands in a number of ports on the route. The efficient algorithm for optimal transport of N cargo loads (e.g. contingent of containers) for ships with limited capacity is being developed. This efficient tool may significantly reduce transport costs and ensure maximal profit to freight forwarders. Also, it can be applied for supply chain management of different goods from numerous vendors. The proposed algorithm shows acceptable complexity that means that such optimization tool can be used in shipping supported with limited computing power.
Knowledge management has became vital in organizations in today's business environment as the implementation of knowledge management tends to provide benefits such as an enhanced way to organize existing corporate knowledge; making individuals more effective at sharing explicit knowledge; and providing new ways to expose tacit knowledge, and in turn this will lead to competitive advantage. It has been argued that the role of quality professional can contribute greatly to knowledge management to include raising strategic awareness, improving the knowledge management process, cost minimization through the usage of one model to blend knowledge management and quality verification and leading the way, and in turn achieving organizational competitiveness. Due to the contribution of quality professional to the enhancement of the knowledge management process, it is suggested that a quality management system that supports all the quality management dimensions and knowledge creation processes will be more effective than one that does not. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to establish a knowledge management system where quality professional will be a key player in capturing the knowledge needed for the needs of small and medium sized organizations in Saudi Arabia.
Securely deleting invalid data from secondary storage is critical to protect users’ data privacy against unauthorized accesses. However, secure deletion is very costly for solid state drives (SSDs), which unlike hard disks do not support in-place update. When applied to SSDs, both erasure-based and cryptography-based secure deletion methods inevitably incur large amount of valid data migrations and/or block erasures, which not only introduce extra latency and energy consumption, but also harm SSD lifetime.
This paper proposes ErasuCrypto, a light-weight secure deletion framework with low block erasure and data migration overhead. ErasuCrypto integrates both erasurebased and encryption-based data deletion methods and flexibly selects the more cost-effective one to securely delete invalid data. We formulate a deletion cost minimization problem and give a greedy heuristic as the starting point. We further show that the problem can be reduced to a maximum-edge biclique finding problem, which can be effectively solved with existing heuristics. Experiments on real-world benchmarks show that ErasuCrypto can reduce the secure deletion cost of erasurebased scheme by 71% and the cost of cryptographybased scheme by 37%, while guaranteeing 100% security by deleting all the invalid data.
The Influence of Unplanned Technical Services on Aircraft Fleet's Management
In this paper the influence of introduced airworthiness directives and bulletin services on in-service process were described. During the in-service time two main states can be distinguished: exploitation and service. An aircraft is an example of technical object in which exists strong relations between these states. The main aim of any airline is to maximize its profits. Such an optimization is affected by several factors. They are mainly connected to the service state (service cost minimization) as well as to the exploitation state (flight interval minimization, frequency ratio maximization, work waiting time minimization, etc.)
Aim: The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the terminology, technology and methodology of pharmacoeconomic evaluations. The choice is made because there is small number of reviews on this subject in Macedonia, and also because of the subject actuality.
Methods: There are four common types of methods of cost-outcomes economic evaluations: Cost-minimisation analysis, Cost-effectiveness analysis, Cost-utility analysis and Cost-benefit analysis.
Results: There are 4 possible results arising in Cost-effectiveness analysis: the costs are lower and health benefits higher for one drug relative to another, the new drug is more expensive and less effective, the drug is more expensive and more effective and the drug is cheaper but less effective.
Conclusion: Pharmacoeconomic methods are used to assist physicians, hospitals, insurers, patients and healthcare professionals in making proper decisions what drug therapies should be chosen. The goal is to find the most efficient and effective treatment for the lowest cost, optimising the patient outcomes and decreasing costs to society.