Carmen Manchado, José García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel Cortell-Tormo and Juan Tortosa-Martínez
help generate and transfer energy from large to small body parts. Core stability is the ability to control the position and motion of the trunk over the pelvis and legs to allow optimum production, transfer and control of force and motion to the terminal segment in integrated kinetic chain activities ( Kibler et al., 2006 ).
Research has established that coretraining has a positive effect on rehabilitation from injury and reduction of back pain ( Danneels et al., 2001 ; Koumantakis et al., 2005 ; McGill, 2003 ). Several studies have been conducted on the effect
Background: It is beneficial for gymnasts to train key lumbopelvic musculature to decrease or prevent low back injury. This study compares lumbopelvic exercises and yoga on lumbar muscle endurance, lumbopelvic stabilization, abdominal strength and balance in adolescent female gymnasts and the effect on low back pain. Material/Methods: 13 participants were randomly allocated to a lumbo-pelvic or yoga group intervention and performed specific exercises for 6 weeks. Biering-Sorensen Test, Lumbopelvic Control Test, Side Bridge Test, and Star Excursion Balance Test were conducted on the participants before and after the 6-week intervention and low back pain logbooks were completed. Results: The Biering-Sorensen Test was significantly greater results for the lumbopelvic group compared to the yoga group. Both groups had significant changes over time with the Lumbopelvic Control Test but no group difference. Both groups had significant improvement with the Side Bridge with the yoga group benefitting more on the left. Out of the six fully completed logbooks, the yoga group showed less occurrence of low back pain compared to the lumbopelvic group. Conclusions: Yoga and lumbopelvic stabilization exercises are equally effective in developing lumbar muscle endurance, lateral stability and front-on stability for young non-elite gymnasts. This is important as they are under-represented in research but overrepresented in participation. This study sets the basis for further research on the incidence of low back pain in young gymnasts and the effects of age-appropriate exercises as a preventative matter.
In recent years, coretraining has been widely studied since it
has been considered a pivotal issue in health, rehabilitation and
sports performance ( Hibbs et al., 2008 ). However,
the definition of the core varies with the interpretation of the
literature ( Hibbs and Thompson, 2008 ).
Anatomically, the core region has been described as the area bounded
by the abdominal muscles in the front, by paraspinal and gluteal
muscles in the back, by diaphragm on the top and by pelvic floor and
girdle musculature at the bottom (Richardson et al., 1999
Chandra Sukalinggam, Gabriel Sukalinggam, Fajar Kasim and Ashril Yusof
Stability Ball Training on Lower Back Strength has Greater Effect in Untrained Female Compared to Male
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of short-term stability ball (SB) training on males and females by comparing the strength changes produced in the core muscles. Forty-two previously untrained subjects, mean age = 23.62 ± 2.89 years were matched by their maximum strength (back strength: male = 190-200 kg, female = 45-50 kg and abdominal strength: male = 110-120 kg, female = 35-40 kg 1RM) and randomly placed in either one of these 3 groups; unstable SB group (n = 14), stable floor group (n = 14) and control group (n = 14) who did no exercise. SB training showed greatest improvement (p < 0.001) in back and abdominal strength (25.79 % and 29.51 % respectively), compared with the gain in floor training (FT) back and abdominal strength (10.28 % and 8.47 % respectively). Untrained female subjects achieved a higher percentage of improvement in strength compared to males in both back and abdominal muscles, and this is most evident in the SB training group. It is apparent that performing core training exercises on unstable surfaces stressed the musculature, possibly activating the neuro-adaptive mechanisms that led to the early phase gains in strength.
. Journal of Knowledge Management, 20(4), 713-730;
 Bell, B. S., & Kozlowski, S. W. J. (2008). Active learning: Effects of coretraining design elements on selfregulatory processes, learning, and adaptability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93 (2), 296-316;
 Chang, C. L.-h. & Lin, T.-C. (2015). The Role of Organizational Culture in the Knowledge Management Process. Journal of Knowledge Management, 19(3), 433-455;
 Chou, C.-H., Wang, Y.-S. & Tang, T.-I. (2015). Exploring the Determinants of Knowledge Adoption in
Sarah L. Strand, John Hjelm, Todd C. Shoepe and Marie A. Fajardo
, Mowbray R, Imamura RT.
Electromyographic analysis of traditional and nontraditional abdominal exercises: Implications for rehabilitation and training. Phys Ther, 2006; 86: 656-671
Faries MD, Greenwood M. Coretraining: Stabilizing the confusion. Strength Cond J, 2007; 29: 10-25
Hall GL, Hetzler RK, Perrin D, Weltman A. Relationship of timed sit-up tests to isokinetic abdominal strength. Res Q Exercise Sport, 1992; 63: 80-84
Hussain I, Sharma K, Ashan M. Electromyographic comparison of concentric and
at least 6 weeks.
This is not the first study pointing to the important influence of coretraining on extremity function, strength and sport performance. Core strength has the potential to prevent injuries and increase the length of athletic career ( Kline et al., 2013 ). Sharrock et al. (2011) proposed a link between core stability tests and athletic performance tests. In a study published by Stray-Pedersen et al. (2006) , Sling Exercise Training (SET) focusing on core stability in soccer players significantly increased the ball velocity of the participants
subject performed both exercises. 6-RM was used because it is a typical training load to increase maximal strength ( ACSM, 2009 ). For the prone bridge, a weight of approximately 20% of body mass was added on the lower back to increase core muscle activity and to avoid limitation of performance due to fatigue of the extremities ( Roth et al., 2016 ). These two exercises were chosen since both are very popular exercises in strength and coretraining. The dependent variables were the total lifting time and the EMG activity of the rectus abdominis, external oblique, and
., Strauss J. (1993), Conscientiousness and performance of sales representatives: Test of the mediating effects of goal setting, „Journal of Applied Psychology”, Vol. 78, pp. 715-722.
5. Bateman T.S., Crant J.M. (1993), The proactive component of organizational behaviour, “Journal of Organizational Behavior”, Vol. 14 (2), pp. 103-118.
6. Bell B., Kozlowski S. (2008), Active learning: Effects of coretraining design elements on self-regulatory processes, learning, and adaptability, „Journal of Applied Psychology”, Vol. 93 (2), pp. 296
Zuzana Gonosova, Petr Stastny, Jan Belka, Lucia Bizovska and Michal Lehnert
training included one or two training sessions daily. The training program was recorded by the head coach.
Indicators of training loads during individual (4 weeks) and group (6 weeks) conditioning
Type of training
Individual conditioning (min)
Group conditioning (min)
Physical fitness training
Strength and power training
450 Coretraining, free-weights 12-15 repetition maximum, machines (twice a week, whole body every time).
735 Coretraining, free-weights at 80% of