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Belgian Federalism after the Sixth State Reform

Abstract

This paper highlights the most important institutional evolutions of Belgian federalism stemming from the implementation of the sixth state reform (2012-2014). This reform inter alia included a transfer of powers worth 20 billion euros from the federal level to the level of the federated states, a profound reform of the Senate, and a substantial increase in fiscal autonomy for the regions. This contribution critically analyses the current state of Belgian federalism. Although the sixth state reform realized important and long-awaited changes, further evolutions are to be expected. Since the Belgian state model has reached its limits with regard to complexity and creativity, politicians and academics should begin to reflect on the seventh state reform with the aim of increasing the transparency of the current Belgian institutional labyrinth.

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The Loss of the Great Outdoors: Neither Correlationist Gem nor Kantian Catastrophe

Abstract

This article concerns Quentin Meillassoux’s claim that Kant’s revolution is responsible for philosophy’s catastrophic loss of the ‘great outdoors’, of our knowledge of things as they are in themselves. I argue that Meillassoux’s critique of Kant’s ‘weak’ correlationism and his defence of ‘strong’ correlationism are predicated on a fallacious argument (termed ‘the Gem’ by David Stove) and the traditional, but in my view mistaken, metaphysical interpretation of Kant’s transcendental distinction. I draw on Henry Allison’s interpretation of Kant’s idealism to argue that when Kant’s transcendental distinction is understood epistemologically we can avoid the fallacious reasoning underpinning Meillassoux’s argument, and at the very least attenuate his concerns about the ‘Kantian catastrophe’.

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The Paradigm of Unity in Prenatal Education and Pedagogy

Abstract

The traditional approach to the relation between parents and their prenatal child presents the child as a fetus, a mainly passive recipient of the mother’s vital biological resources. Contemporary prenatal psychology and pedagogy recognizes this relationship in a quite different perspective: the prenatal child is a member of the family and may be seen as an active member of the wider family as a community, extended to grandparents and other relatives. Between parents and their child in the womb exists a reciprocal relationship at a physiological (hormonal), psychological and spiritual level. The prenatal child communicates with the parents in different ways and reacts to their stimulation (acoustic, tactile, loco-motoric, chemo-receptive, thermo-receptive, and emotional). This dialogue of the parents and their prenatal child enriches each member of the family community. In this sense, the prenatal child is a gift and a challenge for the parents to develop their personality, social competences and spiritual life. The reflections presented in this paper fit the conception of the paradigm of unity applied into the area of prenatal education and prenatal pedagogy as a new pedagogical subdisciline.

The concept of paradigm in the philosophy of science was introduced by T. Kuhn (1962). In his understanding, paradigm means a mental breakthrough in the way of ujmowaniu/describing/approaching the subject of study, and/or in the research methods used, but above all in the theoretical and systemic vision of reality, which is the basis for formulating research questions and hypotheses, operationalising the research procedure, analyzing the obtained research results and a theoretical interpretation of these results. To Kuhn, a paradigm may be understood in such way only in the natural sciences, when new visions of the studied natural reality appear. This is accompanied by a mental change in the cognitive schema itself of understanding reality not only for the creator of this vision, but also in its/his/her broader scientific environment. Kuhn considered the most eminent example of such appearing paradigm in the history of science to be the Copernican revolution, thanks to which the view on the world of nature surrounding the human being has completely changed and there was a mental breakthrough in the 15th and 16th century not only in the area of science, but also in the worldview of people of those times, for whom the world has become more open and broad. Kuhn, however, did not consider a paradigm to be a methodological concept in the humanities or social sciences. He was of the opinion that they must first mature more and make their methodological status more precise if one wishes to talk about a paradigm in these sciences.

A scientific event that gave an occasion to reflect on the possibility of introducing the concept of paradigm into social sciences was the occasion of granting the title of doctor honoris causa in the field of social sciences by the Catholic University of Lublin to Chiara Lubich. The Focolare movement, also called The Movement of Unity, founded and led by her, introduced, a new approach to the area of human relations at every level (interpersonal, family, local society, economic relations, intra- and inter-denominational dialogue). The arguments for granting the title included the fact that the practical activity of Ch. Lubich in various areas of social integration may be described as a Copernican revolution in the cultural-religious relations, and even in social-economical ones, according to the new paradigm, understood practically, which may be called a paradigm of unity. It was stressed that these activities may play a serious/significant inspiring role in the methodological reflections on the paradigm of unity in the social sciences (Biela, 1996). Such reflections were actually brought up first generally in the social sciences (Biela, 2006), and then within the methodology of psychology (Biela, 2009) and education (Kozubek, 2009). At present, one may consider introducing this paradigm into prenatal education and pedagogy.

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Paradigm of Unity as a Prospect for Research and Treatment in Psychology

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to show the methodological power and potentiality of the concept paradigm of unity introduced originally in the ceremony on the occasion of honoring Chiara Lubich with the doctor honoris causa title by the Catholic University of Lublin in 1996. Originally this conception was used to suggest the societal activity of Chiara Lubich in building, via the Focolari movement, psychosocial infrastructures for unity in various social domains, (for example in the economy of communion, in politics (politicians for unity project), in public media (journalists for unity), in ecumenism and inter-religious contacts (ecumenical and inter-religion Focolari Centers) This conception is a kind of a great inspiration (a kind of Copernican revolution in the social sciences) which would motivate the social sciences to build their own research paradigm of a type of mental and methodological power and potentiality which could give a new vision of social world (as Copernicus did in natural sciences (Biela, 1996, 2006)). Thomas Kuhn (1962) regarded the Copernician revolution as the one which, in the history of science, best illustrates the nature of scientific revolution. The essence of paradigm in a Kuhnian sense is a mentality change in its nature. Copernicus had to change the well-established geocentric system which functioned not only in the science of his day but also in culture, tradition, social perception, and even in the mentality of religious and political authorities. And he did it in a well prepared empirical, methodological and psychological way.

In a similar way Chiara Lubich created by her social acting a revolutionary inspiration for building paradigm in social science She decided in an extremely difficult and risky situation in 1944 in Trento not only to escape from her own life emergency but she with her friends made a decision to help other people who were in a much more difficult situation to survive. She decided to take a war bombing risk to be with lost children and older people who were in need. It was a practical building of the unity with the real people who were in need. This kind of experience rediscovered the community as a model for the real life and made a concretization and clarification of the charisma of the unity. However, the development of this charisma shows that it is simply a concrete and practical actualization of the new vision of social, economic, political and religious relationships which advises, recommends, suggests, and promotes the unity with others persons (Lubich, 2007).

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Behavioural Economics in the Context of Social Science Methodology

). The Copernican Revolution. Harvard University Press. Kuhn, T.S. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Merton, R.K. (1948). The Self Fulfilling Prophecy. Antioch Review, 8(2): 195, https://doi.org/10.2307/4609267 Morawski, W. (2016). Economic Identities: Four Paths Out of the “Iron Cage”. Journal of Management and Business Administration Central Europe, 24(4): 2-9, https://doi.org/10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.179 Nola, R. and Sankey, H. (2007). Theories of

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What Did Shakespeare Know About Copernicanism?

, Do Appoint Thomas Russell, Esquire . NY: Oxford University Press. Janowitz, H. “Some Evidence on Shakespeare’s Knowledge of the Copernican Revolution and the ‘New Philosophy.’” The Shakespeare Newsletter (2001): 79-80. Johnson, F.R. “Marlowe’s Astronomy and Renaissance Skepticism.” ELH 13.4 (1946): 241-54. Johnson, F.R. and S. Larkey. “Thomas Digges, the Copernican System, and the Idea of the Infinity of the Universe in 1576.” The Huntington Library Bulletin 5 (1934): 69-117. Levy, D. 2000

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Why Pluralism, Relativism, and Panthareism: An Ethical Landscape with Sport in the Background

Ethics in the Global World/. Translated on the basis of: Lectures in the Institute for the Human Sciences. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Znak. Benisz, H. (1997). Od pierwszego do drugiego „przewrotu kopernikańskiego”. Sformułowanie podstaw nowej filozofii jako rezultatu twórczej polemiki Nietzschego z poglądami Kanta /From the First to the Second ‘Copernican Revolution’. Formulating the Bases of New Philosophy as a Result of Nietzsche’s Creative Polemic with Kantian Views/. Edukacja Filozoficzna /Philosophical Education/ 23, pp. 145-159. Copleston, F. (1963). A

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I Am Not Scared by Conflict

References Biela, A. (1996). A Copernican Revolution for Social Sciences, Nuova Umanità, XVIII, No. 6 (108). pp. 699-708. Bohm, D. (1996). Universe, Mind, Matter. Rea, London: Routledge. Castellano, C. J. (2005). From interior Castle to the external Castle, Unità e Carismi: Roma. Cavaleri, P.( 2001). La comunicazione come competenza strategica, Sciascia: Caltanisetta- Roma. Cavaleri, P. A. (2007). Living with the Other. For a Culture of Relationship, Città Nuova: Roma

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Edward Said and the Margins

. “Edward Said: ‘The Last Jewish Intellectual’: On Identity, Alterity and the Politics of Memory.” Social Text 24.2 (2006): 47-65. Print. hooks, bell. Yearning: Race, Gender and Cultural Politics . Boston: South End, 1990. Print. Hussein, Abdirahman A. Edward Said: Criticism and Society. New York: Verso, 2002. Print. ---. “A New ‘Copernican Revolution’: Said’s Critique of Metaphysics and Theology.” Cultural Critique 67 (2007): 88-106. Print. Luca, Ioana. “Edward Said’s Lieux de Memoire : Out of Place

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Uni-Economic & Innovative Property Price Prediction in the HKSAR

Environmental Factors . Breus T. K., Halberg F. and Cornelissen G. (1993), “Effect of the Solar Activity on the Physiological Rhythms of Human Being”, Conference on the Relations of Biological and Physicochemical Processes with Solar Activity and Other Environmental Factors . Battros M. & Stubbs T. (2005), Solar Rain: The Earth Changes Have Begun. Earth Changes Press. Crowe, M. J. (1990), Theories of the World from Antiquity to the Copernican Revolution , Dover. Dickey, D. and Fuller. W (1979), “Distribution of the Estimators for Autoregressive Time Series with a

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