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References ANGLE, S. A. (2012a): Contemporary Confucian Political Philosophy: Toward Progressive Confucianism. Cambridge (UK) & Malden (USA): Polity. ANGLE, S. A. (2012b): Contemporary Confucian Perspectives on Social Justice. In: M. Palmer (ed.): Companion to Religion and Social Justice. New York, Blackwell, pp. 93–109. APP, U. (2010): The Birth of Orientalism. Philadelphia & Oxford: University of Pennsylvania Press. ARNASON, J. P., EISENSTADT, S. N. & WITTROCK, B. (eds.) (2005): Axial Civilizations and World History. Leiden: Brill. BEHR, W. (2015): Der

References Birdwhistell, J. D. (2007). Mencius and masculinities: Dynamics of power, morality and maternal thinking. Albany: State University of New York Press. Bo, Y. [real name Y. Guo]. (2006). Xiaren de guocui jiaoyu /The quintessence of horrible education/. Shanxi: Beiyue wenyi chuban she. Bresciani, U. (2001). Reinventing Confucianism: The New Confucian Movement. Taipei: Taipei Ricci Institute. Cai, Z. (1993). Riju shidai taiwan bangqiu yundong fanzhan guocheng zhi yanjiu: Yi 1895 (Minzhi 28) nian zhi 1926 (Dazheng 15) nina wei zhongxin. Taipei

Introduction Debates on democracy within Confucianism, which often fall into the realm of Chinese studies, arose in the 20th century when the democratic system became more prevalent around the world. Given that Confucianism and democracy are elements of different cultures ( Lee 1999 ), scholars have spent enormous efforts to analyze the nature of their relationship, whether that be the compatibility of Confucianism with Western democracy ( Hu 1997 ), the interaction between Confucianism and democratic development in East Asia during modernization ( Lee 1999 ), or

Relations, 8(1), 103-137 Brewis, A. A. & McGarvey, S. T. (2000) Body image, body size, and Samoan ecological and individual modernization. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 39(2), 105-120 Cai, D., (2005). Ru Xue Zai Gang Ao Tai He Hai Wai De Xin Ji Yu (The new opportunity of Confucianism at Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and oversea), Academics in China, 257-279 Chan, A. (1996). Confucianism and Development in East Asia. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 26(1), 28-45 Chen, C. (2009). Development of Confucianism in Taiwan. Contemporary Chinese Thought, 41(1), 10-27 Chen, L. (2014


Since the 80’s of the last century a trend has emerged in the English language literature on Chinese thought that suggests reading early Confucian texts as a form of virtue ethics. However, Alasdair MacIntyre has presented early Confucian and Aristotle’s thoughts as incommensurable thought systems and doubted that notions and statements of one incommensurable thought system can be adequately expressed and addressed within the framework of another. This article discusses MacIntyre’s position and two strategies - employed by the proponents of virtue ethics interpretation of early Confucian texts - of meeting MacIntyre’s challenge. The article attempts to show that none of the responses were successful, thus leaving the quest for the most adequate philosophical framework to interpret early Confucian ethical thought open.


The Chinese legal system has got many keystones. One of them is Roman law. It can be seen in obligations, in the very important part of private law. China has got a unique history and the Latin civilization has got the same characteristic too. Despite the fact of the independent development of the Roman Empire and the Chinese Empire those two legal systems were able to meet in the reception of Roman obligations in China in the twentieth century.

That process may create some disputes. Roman law is one of the features of Western civilization. In the Far East, the situation is different. It is not possible to understand the Chinese legal culture without Confucianism, other philosophies, the role of relationships and the heritage of communism.

The connection of two different legal systems in the sphere of obligation which was ended in 1999 when The Contract Law was promulgated may be evaluated in different ways. Maybe the most appropriate is the phrase that in current China everything is possible but nothing is easy.

, originality, and other characteristics in their creativity. Journal of Personality, 34 , 1-25. Huntsinger, C. S., & Jose, P. E. (2009). Parental involvement in children’s schooling: Different meanings in different cultures. Early Childhood Research Quarterly , 24 , 398-410. Hwang, K.-K. (2001). The deep structure of Confucianism: A social psychological approach. Asian Philosophy, 11 , 179-204. Ice, C. L., & Hoover-Dempsey, K. V. (2011). Linking parental motivations for involvement and student proximal achievement outcomes in homeschooling and public schooling settings


In my paper I bring out two topics from the ancient Chinese political philosophy. (1) Non-action (wúwéi) that was required from the ruler in the Legalist and Huang-Lao tradition (e.g. Han Feizi, Huainanzi) and was incorporated into the mainstream of political philosophy (e.g. Confucian Dong Zhongshu); (2) care of the people and especially of the needy, that is also required from the ruler, and was stressed mainly in the Mohist and Confucian traditions. From these two ideas I hope to get some “refreshment” for our contemporary political philosophy, and I consider them as logical extensions of democracy. On the other hand, I argue also that the traditional conception of non-acting ruler in the Legalist context should be modified with the Western ideas of the separation of powers and transparency of government; and even that this modification would be more consequent and realistic also in terms of the original Chinese idea itself.

Way. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998 Chilton, Paul, Hailong Tian, and Ruth Wodak.“Reflections on Discourse and Critique in China and the West.” In Journal of Language and Politics, 9/4, 2010, pp. 489-507 Dietze, Gottfried. Liberalism Proper and Proper Liberalism. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985 Fan, Ruiping. Confucian Bioethics. Hingham, USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999 Fang, Keli and Jinquan Li. Contemporary New Confucianism. Beijing: China Social Sciences Press, 1995 Freeden, Michael. Ideologies and Political Theory: A Conceptual Approach

Chenyang, (2008), The Ideal of Harmony in Ancient Chinese and Greek Philosophy, “Dao”, vol. 7, No. 1, 81-98. 14. O’Donnell Patrick S., (2019), A Study Guide for Confucianism, (accessed 14.10.2019). 15. Pannese Alessia, Rappaz Marc-André, and Grandjean Didier, (2016), Metaphor and music emotion: Ancient views and future directions, “Consciousness and Cognition”, vol. 44, 61-71. 16. Plato, (2013), Laws by Plato, (accessed 14.10.2019). 17. Plato, (2019a