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Any definable relation between falling temperature and the compressive strength of shale rocks should provide a useful predictive tool aiding optimization of the results of hydraulic fracturing. In this research, an automeasuring hydraulic press, a thermo-camera and the Fluent ANSYS software were used. The results of laboratory simulations, and the effects of experiments conducted on shale rocks to determine permanent changes in compressive strength, are presented. As both frozen rocks and rocks returned to room temperature show diminished compressive strength. It is suggested that prior freezing of rocks can increase the efficiency of fracturing.
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Nowadays, catalyst supports are extensively used to decrease the costs and increase the contact surface area in chemical reactions. Specific surface area, compressive strength, pore volume and pore size are some of the most important characteristics of a catalyst support. In this work, Sol-gel and peptization methods were applied to produce alumina catalyst support. Also the roles of aluminum salts and precipitating agents on the specific surface area and compressive strength of alumina catalyst support were investigated. In addition, various additives and common methods in the increasing surface area, compressive strength and adjusting the porosity and pore size are used in this study. The results show that using caustic soda as precipitating agent and aluminum chloride salt yields catalyst supports with the best compressive strength. Also, using aluminum nitrate and ammonia as precipitating agent produced alumina catalyst support with the highest specific surface area.