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References CUATRECASAS J. 1958. Aspectos de la VegetaciUn Natural de Colombia. Revista Acad. Colomb. Ci. Exact. 10: 221-264. GIRALDO MORENO J. E. & PAB”N E. I. 2005. MaIz, alimento sagrado. Los custodios de semillas del Valle del Cauca. Biodiversidad 45: 23-26. KOLANOWSKA M. 2011. Orchids of Valle del Cauca n a preliminary study. Poster I-108 presented as part of the conference BioSystematics, Berlin, 21-27 February 2011. Abstract published by the Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Universit‰t Berlin, p. 202. KOLANOWSKA M., P…REZ ESCOBAR O. A. & PARRA S!NCHEZ E

REFERENCES [1] Mining and Energy planning Bureau (UPME). BECO Inventory 2016. Bogota: UPME, 2017. (in Spanish) [2] Mining and Energy planning Bureau (UPME). Mining and Energy Statistical Report 2012 – 2016. Bogota: UPME, 2017. (in Spanish) [3] Romero M. Incentive to Vehicular Natural Gas as a Subside. El Tiempo 2008:1. (in Spanish) [4] Economy and Business. Rises in liquid fuel oil triggers gas vehicle conversion. El Tiempo 2018:1. (in Spanish) [5] Mining and Energy planning Bureau (UPME). Non-Conventional Renewable Energies Integration in Colombia. Bogota

. Preliminary molecular phylogenetics of Sobralia and relatives (Sobralieae; Orchidaceae). Lankesteriana 11: 307-317. Ortiz Valdivieso P. & Uribe Vélez C. 2007. Galería de Orquídeas de Colombia (CD edition). Asociación Bogotana de Orquideología, Bogotá. Pridgeon A. M., Cribb P. J., Chase M. W. & Rasmussen F. 2005. Genera Orchidacearum. Vol. 4. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Schweinf urth C. 1938. Nomenclatorial notes VII. Bot. Mus. Leaf. 6(4): 112. Szlachetko D. L. 1995. Systema Orchidalium. Fragm. Florist. ., Suppl. 3: 1-137. Szlachetko D. L. & Margońska H. B. 2002

the construction of two hydroelectric plants in Colombia: Betania and El Quimbo . The construction of Betania was authorized by the Colombian government in 1972 without an environmental impact analysis; it responded to the historical need to boost the economy in southern Colombia ( Pulido 2014 ). Betania is considered to be the first multiple-purpose hydro-energy use project on the Magdalena, the most important river in Colombian. The construction of Betania aimed to increase both the coverage and continuity of energy services, as well generate employment in the

not working out of necessity ( Fields, 2012 ; Banerjee and Duflo, 2012 ). The aim of this paper is to analyze the link between labor informality and poverty in Colombia. Quantitative evidence is revealed through two empirical exercises: first, the potential effect of a labor-formalizing policy on poverty indicators through changes in labor earnings is analyzed; second, the effect of the recent changes in labor informality on the extent of poverty in Colombia from 2002 to 2013 is examined. The article is organized into five sections. The first section presents an

. Systematic of Myoxanthus. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Mo. Bot. Gard. 44: 1-111. Ortiz Valdivieso P. & Uribe Vélez C. 2007. Galería de Orquídeas de Colombia (CD edition). Asociación Bogotana de Orquideología, Bogotá. Poeppig E. F. & Endlicher S. L. 1835. Nova Genera ac Species Plantarum quas in Regno Chilensi Peruviano et in Terra Amazonica, Annis 1827 ad 1832. Hofmeister, Leipzig Pridgeon A. M. 1982. Diagnostic anatomical characters in the Pleurothallidinae. Am. J. Bot. 69: 921-938. Pridgeon A. M. & Stern W. L. 1982. Vegetative anatomy of Myoxanthus. Selbyana 7(1): 55-63. Pridgeon

, 229–235. 25. Curi, C., Gitto, S., Mancuso, P. (2011) New evidence on the efficiency of Italian airports: A bootstrapped DEA analysis. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences , 45, 84-93. 26. Curi, C., Gitto, S., Mancuso, P. (2010) The Italian airport industry in transition: a performance analysis. Journal of Air Transport Management , 16, 218–221. 27. Díaz Olariaga, O. (2018) Prognosis de tráfico aéreo en contexto de post-liberalización del transporte aéreo. Caso de Colombia. Working Paper . DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.11443.73760 28. Díaz Olariaga, O. (2017) Políticas de

References Bechteler J., Lee G.E., Schäfer-Verwimp A., Pócs T., Peralta D.F., Renner M.A.M., Schneider H. & Heinrichs J. (2016): Towards a monophyletic classification of Lejeuneaceae IV: reinstatement of Allorgella , transfer of Microlejeunea aphanella to Vitalianthus and refinements of the subtribal classification. – Plant Systematics and Evolution 302: 187-201. Bernal R., Gradstein S.R. & Celis M. (eds) (2016): Catalogó de plantas y líquenes de Colombia, 2 vols. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, 3058 pp. Dong S., Schäfer-Verwimp A., Pócs T

: Mugilidae). Gayana, Zool., 51: 3–58 [9] Galiano, M., Romero, M. (1979): Parásitos de peces de la Ciénaga de Santa Marta. Tesis de Grado en Biología, Colombia, Bogotá: Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. [10] Huang, W. (1988): Anisakidés et anisakidoses humaines. Deuxième partie: Enquête sur les Anisakidés de poissons comerciaux du marché parisien. Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp., 63: 197–208 [11] Huizinga, H. W. (1967): The life cycle of Contracaecum multipatillatum (von Drasche, 1882) Lucker, 1941 (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae). J


A preliminary list of the picture-winged flies known from Columbia is supplemented by 15 species based predominantly on the materials from the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA and now contains 28 species, including Xycores igniceps gen. & sp. n. from Venezuela and Colombia. The new genus belongs to the subfamily Otitinae and is preliminarily assigned to the tribe Cephaliini by the combination of the high clypeus, strongly widened palp, setulose vein R1, and ejaculator with short sperm pump and long fan-like apodeme. It clearly differs from other members of the tribe by the combination of elongate, narrow, apically truncated flagellomere 1, robust, mainly shining thorax with pair of microtrichose vittae, well developed proepisternal, postpronotal, acrostichal, 2 pairs of dorsocentral and scutellar setae, wing with entirely setulose vein R1 abdominal tergites devoid of microtrichia, sternites and abdominal pleura narrow, male genitalia with short epandrium, numerous (7–8) prensisetae arranged into a row along posterior margin, shallow hypandrium with pair of setulose pregonites, no postgonites or epiphallus, and an almost bare phallus with a pair of long spines submedially.