Introduction The period from 1945 until 1991 was decisive for the development of international mass communications – the rise of television being the most important example. These years were also marked by the ColdWar between the East and West – the conflict between two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. If we wish to understand the development of the mass media during this period, we also need to investigate the relations between the media and the ColdWar. It seems obvious that the ColdWar influenced media content for decades. However
diplomatic pressure. Rather, there were strong sympathies for the East Germans among the Finnish public, political elite, and media ( Hentilä, 2004 , 2006 ; Rusi, 2007 , 2012 ). While earlier research on the relations between Finland and the GDR has concentrated on political parties and organisations, top politicians, and the field of state diplomacy ( Hentilä, 2004 , 2006 ; Rusi, 2007 , 2012 ), the perspectives of the public and the media have remained unexplored. Thus, this article opens a new perspective on Finland’s ColdWar history by examining the role of the
References  Raymond Ojserkis, ”The United States & the beginning of the ColdWar arms race”, p.79, accessed on http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/2607/1/U615556.pdf  idem  idem  idem p.84  https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kentcsi/vol7no2/html/v07i2a05p_0001.htm  https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/united-states-and-canada/us-history/officestrategic-services  Paperclip Operation managed to recruit over 1600 German scientists, such as Wernher von Braun, who had an important contribution to the National Aeronautics and
References Åslund, A. (2011), ‘The demise of the Soviet economic system’, International Politics 48, 4/5 pp. 545-561. Brooks, S. G., Wohlforth, W.C. (2000/01), ‘Power, Globalization, and the End of the ColdWar. Reevaluating a Landmark Case for Ideas’, International Security 25, 3 pp. 5-53. Brown, A, (2004), Gorbachev and the End of the ColdWar, [in:] Ending the ColdWar Interpretations, Causation, and the Study of International Relations, Richard K. Herrmann and Richard Ned Lebow (eds.), Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2004, pp. 31-58. Cox, M. (2011), ‘The uses
This discussion looks back at socialist Romania and the collapse of the Ceauşescu regime. It suggests that Romania, like all states, socialist, social-democratic and neoliberal are confronted by the same world systemic capitalism and that all states use a mixture of policies involving both capitalist and socialist, democratic and authoritarian features in the attempt to avoid the hazards and to gain the advantages of a global system dominated by capitalist accumulation. Using a diversity of assets and hampered by limitations inherited historically, some will fail and some will succeed as state projects. Cold War era analysis will not be useful as a way to evaluate or predict winners or losers. Likewise, the failure of Communist Romania as a state system could not have been predicted either by its authoritarian or by its socialist policy features.
Possession of nuclear weapons – between
legality and legitimization
Jan Długosz University in Czestochowa,
Polish Instytut of Administration, Poland
SROGOSZ, Tomasz. Possession of nuclear weapons – between legality and legi-
timization. International and Comparative Law Review, 2016, vol. 16, no. 1, pp.
7–21. DOI: 10.1515/iclr-2016-0001.
Summary: Recently in Russian policy there was a return to the ColdWar practices,
which include, inter alia, nuclear deterrence, and even threatening to use nuclear weap-
ons. That policy
Institute of Geodesy and Cartography]. In: A. Ciołkosz, (ed.), The 70th anniversary of the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography . Warszawa: Instytut Geodezji i Kartografii, pp. 117–124. Ciołkosz A., Majcher I., Sujkowska W.,1981, Wyznaczanie zasięgów rozprzestrzeniania się dymów przemysłowych na podstawie zdjęć satelitarnych [Delineating the range of industrial smoke spreading based on satellite images]. “ Prace Instytutu Geodezji i Kartografii” T. 28, nr 1, pp. 19–43. Cloud J.G., 2002, American cartographic transformations during the ColdWar . “Cartography and
Humanity has long been haunted by the notions of Armageddon and the coming of a Golden Age. While the English Romantic poets like Shelley saw hopes of a new millennium in poems like “Queen Mab” and “The Revolt of Islam”, others like Blake developed their own unique “cosmology” in their longer poems that were nevertheless coloured with their vision of redemption and damnation. Even Hollywood movies, like The Book of Eli (2010), rehearse this theme of salvation in the face of imminent annihilation time and again. Keeping with such trends, this paper would like to trace this line of apocalyptic vision and subsequent hopes of renewal with reference to William Golding’s debut novel Lord of the Flies (1954) and his Pincher Martin (1956). While in the former, a group of young school boys indulge in violence, firstly for survival, and then for its own sake, in the latter, a lonely, shipwrecked survivor of a torpedoed destroyer clings to his own hard, rock-like ego that subsequently is a hurdle for his salvation and redemption, as he is motivated by a lust for life that makes him exist in a different moral and physical dimension. In Lord of the Flies, the entire action takes place with nuclear warfare presumably as its backdrop, while Pincher Martin has long been interpreted as an allegory of the Cold War and the resultant fear of annihilation from nuclear fallout (this applies to Golding’s debut novel as well). Thus, this paper would argue how Golding weaves his own vision of social, spiritual, and metaphysical dissolution, and hopes for redemption, if any, through these two novels.
Although it is known for a long time, hybrid war taken place in Ukraine under the umbrella of Russian Federation surprised the whole world and produced the greatest worry for humankind’s fate since the World War II. The political and military analysts appreciate if the World War III does not come will at least follow a long time of a new cold war. Remembering the hybrid war is not declared, can be prolonged in time and the adversary is unknown, thus neither the aggressor state, it is hard to settle which are the countermeasures and how should be act when this clever adversary attacks you using hostile propaganda, to the limit of trick and war perfidy (the first is allowed as method of war, the latter is not), influences the political decision-makers by blackmail, military, economic and energetic deterrence or nuclear bombardments and undergoes subversive, clandestine actions and particularly it is hard to predict their consequences.
References Archiwum Akt Nowych (AAN) (1957) Warszawa, Polska. Bauman, Zygmunt (1961) Z zagadnień współczesnej socjologii amerykańskiej. Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza. Bell, Daniel (2001) The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties . New York: Free Press. Czernecki, Igor (2013) ‘An intellectual offensive: The Ford Foundation and the destalinization of the Polish social sciences’. ColdWar History Journal (CWHJ), 13(3):289-310. Ford Foundation Archives (FFA) (1955), New York, USA. Kemp-Wlech, Anthony (2008) Poland Under Communism