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References Angeli G., Anfora G., Baldessari M., Germinara G.S., Rama F., Cristofaro A. De, Ioriatti C. 2007. Mating disruption of codling moth Cydia pomonella with high densities of Ecodian sex pheromone dispensers. J. App. Ent. 131: 311-318 Benvenuto L., Totis F. 2009. A new method for the control of codling moth: sexual auto-confusion with Exosex CM. Notiziaro ERSA. 22: 10-13. Charmillot P.J., Pasquier D. 2002. Progression de la resistance du carpocapse Cydia pomonella aux insecticides. Revue Suisse Vitic. Arboric. Hortic. 34 (2): 95-100. Helsen H

References Bassi A., Vergara L., Alber R., Fioretti C., Wiles J. 2008. Chlorantraniliprole (RynaxypyrReg.): a new insecticide general properties and activity on Spodoptera littoralis. Giornate- Fitopatologiche, Cervia RA, 12-14 March, 2008 1, pp. 9-16. Charmillot P.-J., Pasquier D., Briand D. 2005. Resistance du carpocapse Cydia pomonella aux insecticides. REV. SUISSE VITICUL. ARBORICUL. HORTIC. 37: 123-127. Gorzka D., Olszak R.W. 2011. Codling moth ( Cydia pomonella ) resistance research on synthetic pyrethroids, Proceeding of 54 Conference of Plant Protection

. Ecological Modelling , 369: 1–12. Boldyrev, M.I. 1981. Short-term forecasting of the development of codling moths. Plant protection , 5: 38-39. Boldyrev, M.I. 1991. Optimal timing and measures to combat the codling moth. Gardening and viticulture, 6: 13-15. Bulygina, O.N., Razuvaev, V.N., Aleksandrova, T.M. 2018. Description of the data of air daily temperatures and precipitation at meteorological stations of Russia and neighboring countries. http://meteo.ru/data/162-temperature-precipitation Drozda, V.F., Sagitov, A.O. 2017. Evaluation of technologies for protection

References Adams D. C., Funk D. J. Morphometric inferences on sibling species and sexual dimorphism in Neochlamisus bebbianae leaf beetles: multivariate applications of the thin- plate spline // Systematic Biology. - 1997. - 46 . - P. 180-194. Alipanah H., Rezapanah M. R., Sari A. R. Study of the morphometric variations of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in some parts of Iran // Proc. 16th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 28 Aug.—1 Sept. - 2004. - P. 99. Bernardo U., Pedata P. A., Viggiani, G. Phenotypic plasticity of pigmentation and morphometric traits

. 1999. The smaller fruit tortrix, Grapholita lobarzewskii : predicting the phenology of adult emergence. In Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 1999, no. 93, pp. 299–304. HLUCHÝ, M. a i. 2008. Ochrana ovocných dřevin a révy v ekologické a integrované produkci. Brno : Biocont Laboratory spol. s r. o., 2008, 498 s. ISBN 978-80-901874-7-4. JOSHI, N. K. – RAJOTTE, E. G. – NAITHANI, K. J. – KRAWCZYK, G. – HULL, L. A. 2016. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems. In Frontiers in

Results on the Efectiveness of Plant Protection Products Tested at the Fruit Growing Research and Development Station Iaşi, Romania

During 2010-2011, at the Fruit Growing Research and Development Station (FGRDS) Iaşi, Romania, were carried aut research on testing the effectiveness of plant protection products. The experiment was conducted in experimental polygon, in an apple orchard, the variety Idared. Pests on witch observations were made were: Cydia pomonella L., Adoxophyes reticulana, Panonychus ulmi, Phyllonorycter spp., and the products tested were: Affirm SG 095 and Voliam Targo SC 063. The products Affirm SC 095 was tested against the apple skin moth (Adoxophyes reticulana) and apple codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.), and the product Voliam Targo SC 063 was tested against red mites (Panonychus ulmi) and the leaves miners (Phyllonorycter spp.) apple codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.). As standard products Coragen and Vertimec 1.8 EC were used at the rates of 0.15 l/ha and 0.75/ha respectively.

Abstract

In recent decades, positive changes have been occurred on the fruit crops protection, because of new synthetic or natural substances, more effective and less toxic. In 2011, at Fruit Growing Research and Development Station Iaşi, Romania, was tested a phitosanitary program that aimed especially to control the main pest of apple, being introduced the next generation of plant protection products, such as: Coragen, Proteus, Calypso, Decis 25 WG. The research was carried out for Idared, Golden delicious and Florina, on tow variants for each variety. Phytosanitary treatments applied for pest control were supplemented with fungicides used to combat major apple deseases. Until blooming tow treatments were applied for each variant, and after the petals fall, treatments were carried out at warning. Observation and measurements were performed after the treatments and they showed, at the end of each generation, the percentage of attacked fruits by the main apple pests. These produsts applied in a few treatments have provided a strong efficacy in combating major apple pests: codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.), fruit skin moth (Adoxophyes reticulana Hb.), leaf miner moth (Phyllonorycter sp.) and mites (Panonychus sp.). To combat lepidoptera, best result were obtained with Calypso 480 SC and Coragen insecticides, and also, products such as Decis 25 WG and Proteus, have ensured a good health in apple plantation.

References ABBOTT, J. A. 1999. Quality measurement of fruits and vegetables. In Postharvest Biology and Technology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 207–225. ARTHURS, S. P. – LACEY, L. A. – MILICZKY, E. R. 2007. Evaluation of the codling moth granulovirus and spinosad for codling moth control and impact on non-target species in pear orchards. In Biological Control, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 99–109. GUERRERO, V. M. – OROZCO, J. A. – ROMO, A. – GARDEA, A. A. – MOLINA, F. J. – SASTRÉ, B. – MARTINEZ, J. J. 2002. The effect of hail nets and ethephon on color development of ‘Redchief

-239. Charmillot P. J., Gourmelon A., Fabre A. L., Pasquier D. 2001. Ovicidal and larvicidal effectiveness of several insect growth inhibitors and regulators on the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lep., Tortricidae). J Appl. Entomol. 125: 147-153. Dost F. N., Wagner S. L., Witt J. M., Heumann M. 1985. Toxicological Evaluation of Dimilin (Diflubenzuron). Oregon State University, Extension Service Toxicology Information Program, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Corvallis, OR. 9-29. Extoxnet (2006) Extension Toxicology Network Pesticide Information ProWles. URL http

References Anonymous 2001. Spinosad Technical Bulletin. DOW AgroSciences. Anonymous 2004. EPPO standards, efficacy evaluation of plant protection products, vol. 3, Insecticides & Acaricides, European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, Paris, France 2004, pp. 250. Arthurs S. P., Lacey L. A., Miliczky E. R. 2007. Evaluation of the codling moth granulovirus and spinosad for codling moth control and impact on non-target species in pear orchards. Biological Control 41 (1): 99-109. [DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2007.01.001] Burkness E. C., Hutchison W. D