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electroporation, in COST action TD 1104 EP4Bio 2 Med, and is included in the series of publications addressing the same topic in preclinical research in electroporation as well as in the pulsed electric fields for industrial purposes. 31 Several guidelines exist with the aim of assuring sound research practices, and improving the quality of clinicaltrials and, ultimately, allow for generalizable results. At a basic level, Good Clinical Practice (GCP) represents an international ethical and scientific quality standard for designing, conducting, recording and reporting trials
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Background and aims: The objective of this study was to conclude if there are enough scientific evidences to consider metformin as a potential treatment for pancreatic cancer. Material and Method: We performed a systematic search using PubMed and MedlinePlus up to September 2012. Reference list of relevant peer reviewed literature were hand searched. Ultimately 15 articles were included. Results: Epidemiological studies had revealed that therapy with metformin was associated with 21% reduced risk for all types of malignancies, 31% reduction in overall summary relative risk, the median survival was longer: 16.6 vs. 11.5 months and the risk of death has decreased with 33%. In vitro it was proven that low doses of metformin block the stimulation of DNA synthesis and the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells. Prospective randomized clinical trials to confirm these data were already launched. Conclusions: These results raise the possibility that metformin could improve the poor prognostic of patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. Other clinical trials should confirm this hypothesis.
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, (no serious adverse events associated with these trials) but none resulted in long-term expression of clotting factor at therapeutic levels [ 9 ]. Looking back over two decades of intensive gene therapy research, it can be seen that the early studies have paved the way for the increasingly sophisticated therapies currently under investigation ( Table 1 ). Table 1 Clinicaltrials for gene therapy of haemophilia (from Cancio et al, 2013 [ 1 ]) Reference Gene and vector Administration and subjects Outcome • Roth et al, 2001 [ 11 ] hFVIII via plasmid DNA Laparoscopic
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