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Antibiotics are widely detected emerging contaminants in water environments and possess high potential risks to human health and aquatic life. However, conventional water treatment processes cannot remove them sufficiently. To develop innovative nanoadsorbents for effectively remove antibiotic contaminants from water environment, nanoceria were prepared via in situ precipitation method, and evaluated their adsorption capacity for a model antibiotic, ciprofloxacin (CIP). The properties of the prepared nanoceria were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibration sample magnetization (VSM). The effect of various operating parameters such as pH, initial CIP concentration, contact time, and adsorbent dosage on adsorptions of CIP were studied in batch experiments. Maximum adsorption capacity of the nanoceria was 49.38 mg/g at the conditions of pH 5, initial CIP concentration of 200 mg/dm3 and adsorbent dosage of 0.2 g/dm3, when 95.43 % of the CIP was removed. For adsorption kinetics, both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models can well describe the experimental data, indicating that the adsorption process was controlled by both physical diffusion and chemical interaction. For adsorption isotherms, the Freundlich model could fit the experimental data better than the Langmuir and Temkin models, suggesting a multilayer adsorption process. The thermal dynamics study showed the absorption process was spontaneity, exothermic, and irreversible. Finally it was concluded that the nanoceria can be used effectively for CIP removal.
This paper presents an electrochemical behavior study and quantification of fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin using boron-doped diamond electrode. Ciprofloxacin provides a diffusion-driven electrode reaction with an irreversible and poorly defined peak at +1.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl electrode in the presence of Britton-Robinson buffer solution pH 4. Applying differential pulse voltammetry (modulation amplitude of 60 mV, modulation time of 50 ms), the calibration curve with high linearity (R2 = 0.997) was obtained within the concentration range of (0.74 – 20.0) × 10−6 mol L−1 with the detection limit of 6.0 × 10−7 mol L−1 and repeatability expressed by relative standard deviation of 2.7 % (for 20 measurements). Interference study was performed to explore the selectivity of the elaborated procedure. By analysis of pharmaceutical dosages and model human urine samples, the ciprofloxacin content with the recovery values ranging from 88.4 to 121.2 % were determined. The developed approach using point-of-care electrochemical sensor based on boron-doped diamond material could represent inexpensive analytical alternative to separation methods and could be beneficial in analysis of biological samples and in the quality control in pharmaceutical industry.
Quality control of veterinary medicine products containing two different frequently used antibiotics metronidazole and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, was considered and performed, using modified pharmacopoeial HPLC methods. Three different HPLC systems were used: Varian ProStar, Perkin Elmer Series and UPLC Shimadzu Prominence XR. The chromatographic columns used were LiChropher RP Select B 75 mm × 4 mm with 5 μm particles and Discovery C18 100 mm × 4,6 mm with 5 μm particles. Chromatographic methods used for both analytes were compendial, with minor modifications made for experimental purposes. Minor modifications of the pharmacopoeia prescribed chromatographic conditions, in both cases, led to better chromatographic parameters, good resolution and shorter analysis times. Optimized methods can be used for: determination of metronidazole in gel formulation, for its simultaneous quantification with preservatives present in the formulation and even for identification and quantification of its specified impurity, 2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole; determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in film coated tablets and eye drops and identification and quantification of its specified impurities. These slightly modified and optimized pharmacopoeial methods for quality control of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin dosage forms used in veterinary medicine can be successfully applied in laboratories for quality control of veterinary medicines.
Low molecular mass chitosan as carrier for a hydrodynamically balanced system for sustained delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride
Chitosan has become a focus of major interest in recent years due to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity. Although this material has already been extensively investigated in the design of different types of drug delivery systems, it is still little explored for stomach specific drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation was to explore the potential of low molecular mass chitosan (LMCH) as carrier for a hydrodynamically balanced system (HBS) for sustained delivery of water soluble drug ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CP). Various formulations were prepared by physical blending of drug and polymer(s) in varying ratios followed by encapsulation into hard gelatin capsules. All the formulations remained buoyant in 0.1 mol L-1 HCl (pH 1.2) throughout the experiment. Effect of addition of xanthan gum (XG) or ethyl cellulose (EC) on drug release was also investigated. Zero order drug release was obtained from the formulations containing LMCH alone or in combination with XG, and in one instance also with EC. Our results suggest that LMCH alone or in combination with XG is an excellent material for stomach specific sustained delivery of CP from hydrodynamically balanced single unit capsules.
feed contaminants. Book of Abstracts. 2 nd Feed for Health Conference, p. 48. Tromso, Norway 4. Liang, J., Li, J., Zhao, F., Liu, P., Chang, Z. (2012). Pharmacokinetics and tissue behavior of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in turbot Scophthalmus maximus at two water temperatures. Chinese J. Oceanol. Limnol. 30, 644-653. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00343-012-1228-2 5. Alfredsson, G., Ohlsson, A. (1998). Stability of sulphonamide drugs in meat during storage. Food Addit. Contam. 15, 302-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652039809374645 PMid:9666889 6