The present conference discusses the symbolic meaning of bread in the religious mentality of the Ancient Near East. We will find that bread, besides being a food necessary for its existence, also represented a cultural archetype that summed up and assumed in itself either different divinities of Oriental civilizations, or had a ritual-sacrificial character, in order to facilitate man rather immortality.
A historical and theological journey in 12 steps, from the early Biblical origin to later Patristic and contemporary expression of the Orthodox liturgy, in order to uncover the social dimension of Christian liturgy. Some of the causes are analyzed in brief: the marginalization of the Antiochene tradition, an overdose eschatology, the “modern” understanding of the Bible, the gradual loss of the prophetic character of the Church, which is more evident in the Bible, and the marginalization – until the Holy and Great Council of the Orthodox Church – of its witnessing responsibility, have resulted in a significant legacy that hinders any real Biblical and liturgical renewal. The experiment of the Church of Greece that launched nearly 20 years ago an official, albeit unsuccessful, liturgical renewal project. The final proposal is a combination of both this neglected prophetic character and the prevailing eschatological dimension of the Orthodox faith, with all that these imply for an authentic and genuine Orthodox liturgical practice.
charged with spreading and defending the Christian faith and strictly associated with the privileged classes (aristocracy and clergy). Notable in Castilla-La Mancha were the Orders of San Juan, Calatrava and Santiago. , which forced people settling in their domains to cultivate them. The motives were mainly cultural, as wine played a key role in Christianliturgy and was used as containment against the arrival of Muslim settlers, and it was also economical, because the Orders ensured themselves a regular source of income from planting vineyards and selling wine outside
his teaching called people toward responsibility for those who suffered. Or people need to know that in Christianliturgies we find prayers for those who are gathered in the churches but also for all people and for all the world. Historically, when religious experiences have been separated from such values, in the long term, they have not brought people well-being.
Today, art and a good culture (those forms of culture which still cultivate) have wider possibilities to communicate such values than doctrine or religious institutions. But there are also examples of