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, Autonomy, and Community. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. KÖGLER, H.-H. (2005): Constructing a Cosmopolitan Public Sphere: Hermeneutic Capabilities and Universal Values. In: European Journal of Social Theory , 8(3), pp. 297–320. LAI, K. (2008): An Introduction to Chinese Philosophy. New York: Cambridge University Press. METZGER, T. A. (2005): A Cloud across the Pacific: Essays on the Clash between Chinese and Western Political Theories Today. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press. New Testament. Today’s New International Version. Grand Rapids: Zondervan


One of the most significant current discussions in Chinese philosophy is the problem of interpreting the notion of wú wéi. As one of the popular concepts of ancient Chinese thought, wú wéi was used and differently interpreted in various philosophical schools from the very beginning. In this article, the Daoist notion of wú wéi will be explored as the “art of stopping when it’s time to stop”, taking the philosophical approach and appealing to the text of the Zhuangzi. The critical investigation into the sinological literature allows us to reveal several different contemporary attitudes towards wú wéi as the aim, process, and ground for the “ideal” human existence


This paper sets out to investigate Chinese university students’ ELF awareness, which is conceptualised with regards to language education. The study, based on 24 semi-structured interviews, demonstrates that Chinese university students are still framing their understanding of English with the affiliation to idealised notions of monolingual origin of native English, despite being situated in a changing world where multilingual speakers of English are becoming the majority of English users and ELF is becoming a prominent communicative phenomenon. The participants’ account reveals the role of language education as the interface between language ideology and linguistic reality in China. Based on the study, this paper suggests ways of minimising the gap in ELF awareness. While this paper appreciates Chinese philosophy of education, the focus is on promoting awareness of English in relation to its sociocultural context and considering “imagined communities” in the learning so as to come to terms with sociolinguistic reality.

. Berlin, Boston: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 3-17. Kuhn, T. S., 1970. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, Vol. 2, No. 2, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. MacIntyre, A., 2004. Once More on Confucian and Aristotelian Conceptions of the Virtues: A Response to Professor Wan. In: Wang, Robin R. (ed.) Chinese Philosophy in an Era of Globalization. Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 151-62. MacIntyre, A., 1991. Incommensurability, Truth, and the Conversation Between Confucians and Aristotelians about the Virtues

References Chang, W., 1969. A Sourcebook of Chinese Philosophy. New York: Columbia University Press. Confucius, 1998. The Analects, Hinton3 David tr., Washington, DC: Counterpoint. Fingurette, Herbert., 1972. Confucius: the Secular as Sacred. New York: Harper & Row. Gosche, R., 2009. Europe or the Infinite Task. Stanford CA.: Stanford University Press. Habermas, J., 1976. Zur Rekonstruktion der Historischen Materialismus. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Hall, D. L. & Ames R. T., 1987. Thinking Through Confucius. New York, Albany: State University of New York Press

. Zhuangzi Lectures, pp. 47-50. Available at: http:// [Accessed 28 May 2013] Wu, Kuang-ming, 2005. Chinese Philosophy and Story-Thinking. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy, Vol. IV, No. 2, pp. 217-234.

, creativity, and the human spark. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Verhagen, A. (2005). Constructions of intersubjectivity: discourse, syntax, and cognition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Xiang, M. & Pascual, E. (2016). Debate with Zhuangzi: expository questions as fictive interaction blends in ancient Chinese philosophy. In Pragmatics, 26(1), p. 137-162. Zinken, J., Helsten, I. & Nerlich, B. (2007). Discourse metaphors. In Body, Language and Mind: Sociocultural Situatedness. Frank, R., Dirven, R., Ziemke, T. & Bernardez, E. (eds.). Berlin-New York: Mouton de Gruyter, p

education J Interprof Care 2000 14 237 247 23 Jakob C. Socialization. In: Brown K, ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics North-Holland: Elsevier. 2006:462-466. Jakob C Socialization Brown K Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics North-Holland Elsevier 2006 462 466 24 John JM. Sociology 15th ed. Boston: Pearson. 2013:126. John JM Sociology 15th ed. Boston Pearson 2013 126 25 Ma L, Tsui AS. Traditional Chinese philosophies and contemporary leadership. Leadership Q 2015;26:13-24. Ma L Tsui AS Traditional Chinese philosophies and contemporary leadership

as the roots is a fundamental political concept of Confucianism. In the Book of History, one of the five classics of ancient Chinese philosophy, there is a phrase: “People are the roots of the nation. If the roots are not firm, the nation will collapse” (“民惟邦本,本固邦寧”). Based on this idea, Mencius developed the notion that people are the most important, the country comes second, and the king is the last ( Ivanhoe 2007 ). Here, the concept of “people as the roots” is associated with the concept of the mandate of Heaven. Confucian philosophy postulates that Heaven

in Chinese 27 Ma L, Tsui AS. Traditional Chinese philosophies and contemporary leadership. Leadership Quarterly 2015;26:13-24. Ma L Tsui AS Traditional Chinese philosophies and contemporary leadership Leadership Quarterly 2015 26 13 24 28 Xiao MZ, Wu XH. Chinese leadership: culture and confucianism. Public Integrity 2014;16:165-172. Xiao MZ Wu XH Chinese leadership: culture and confucianism Public Integrity 2014 16 165 172 29 Qian WQ, Gao YY. The “Three Roles” of leaders in hospital culture construction. JiangSu Health Care Manag 2015; 26:71-72 (in Chinese